1. Multi-level atherosclerosis is associated with multi-focal signifi cant stenoses in each of arterial territories.

2. Independent predictors of multi-level atherosclerotic lesions are: mean-CIMT val-ue, claudication, presence of 3 and more risk factors, history of myocardial infarction, creatinine concentration, male gender, low HDL cholesterol level and low body mass in-dex.

3. Ultrasonographic assessment of peripheral arterie stenosis grade is a valuable ex-amination, and its accuracy is 99.7% for detection of stenosis in carotid artery, 96.7%

– in subclavian, 93.2% – in lower limb and 90.3% – in vertebral arteries.


4. The increase in IL-6, TNFα, and hs-CRP levels are associated with increasing ex-tent of atherosclerosis, however, three is a difference in distribution of some biomarkers in relation to specifi c territorial involvements.

5. No difference between frequency of allels for IL-6, as well as angiotensin I con-verting enzyme polimorphisms and the number of territories with stenosis ≥ 50% was found.

6. The revascularization procedures are feasible and safe. The frequency of peripro-cedural complications of percutaneous and surgical procedures is strongly related to the number of arteria territories with signifi cant stenosis.

7. The independent risk factors for complication ocurrence are: atherosclerosis extent, claudication, diabetes, creatinine > 105 μmol/L, and the mean-CIMT value ≥ 1.3 mm.

8. A strong association between cardiovascular events frequency and the extent of atherosclerosis is observed, both in patients who underwent revascularization as well as in whose referred to medical treatment only.

9. Following independent predictors of future CV events were identifi ed: atheroscle-rosis extent, mean-CIMT value, cumulation of risk factors, left ventricle ejection frac-tion, claudicafrac-tion, hs-CRP and NT-pro-BNP levels.


[1] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Ageing 1950-2050. Demographic determinants of population ageing: http://


[2] WHOQOL Group. The Word Heath Organization quality of life assessment: Position pa-per from World Health Organization. Soc. Sci. Med. 1995; 41: 1403–1409

[3] American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2009 Update. Dane statystyczne Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/ NCHS oraz dane NHLBI 2005–2006

[4] Dane statystyczne Światowej Organizacji Zdrowia (http://www.who.Int/en)

[5] Task Force of European Society of Cardiology. ESC Guidelines on management of stable angina pectoris. Eur. Heart J. 2006; 27: 1341–1381

[6] Leal J., Luengo-Fernandez R., Gray A., et al. Economic burden of cardiovascular disease in the enlarged European Union. Eur. Heart J. 2006; 27: 1610–1619

[7] Rigatelli G., Roncon L., Bedendo E., et al. Concomitant peripheral vascular and corona-ry artecorona-ry disease: a new dimension for the global endovascular specialist? Clin. Cardiol.

2005; 28: 231–235

[8] Lanzer P. Vascular multimorbidity in patients with a documented coronary artery disease Z. Kardiol. 2003; 92: 650–659

[9] Cirillo F., Renzulli A., Leonardo G. et al. Associated vascular lesions in patients undergo-ing coronary artery bypass graftundergo-ing. Acta Cardiol. 2001; 56: 91–96

[10] Atmer B., Jogestrand T., Laska J., et al. Peripheral artery disease in patients with coronary artery disease. Int Angiol. 1995; 14: 89–93

[11] Nicolaides B.G., Laurora A.N., Cesarone G., et al. Ultrasound morphology classifi ca-tion of the arterial wall and cardiovascular events in a 6-year follow-up study. Atherosc.

Thrombosis. Vasc. Biol. 1996; 16: 851–856

[12] Ross R. Atherosclerosis – an infl ammatory disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 340: 115–126.

[13] Dembińska-Kieć A. Miażdżyca naczyń. W: Choroba niedokrwienna serca. Red.: Giec L.

Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL. Warszawa 1996

[14] Matsuda J., Ross R. Atherogenesis during low level hypercholesterolemia in the nonhu-man primate. Fatty streak conversion to fi brous plaque. Atheroscler. 1990; 10: 178–87 [15] Wald N.J., Law M., Watt H.C., et al. Apolipoproteins and ischaemic heart disease:

impli-cation for screening. Lancet 1994; 343: 75–79

[16] Castelli W.P. Cholesterol and lipids in the risk of coronary artery disease – the Framing-ham Heart Study. Can J. Cardiol. 1988; 4 Suppl A: 5A–10A

[17] Członkowska A., Ryglewicz D., Weissbein T., et al. A prospective community – based study of stroke in Warsaw, Poland. Stroke 1994; 25: 547–551

[18] D’Agostino R.B., Grundy S., Sullivan L.M., et al. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA 2001; 286: 180–187

[19] Sacco R.L., Wolf P.A., Kannel W.B., et al. Survival and recurrence following stroke: The Framingham Study. Stroke 1982; 13: 290–298

[20] Thorvaldsen P., Asplund K., Kuulasmaa K., et al, for the WHO MONICA ProJect. Stroke Incidence, Case Fatality, and Mortality in the WHO MONICA Project. Stroke 1995; 26:


[21] Barnett H.J.M., Eliasziw M., Meldrum H.E. Prevention of ischaemic stroke. BMJ 1999;

318: 1539

[22] Schwartz C.J., Born G.V.R. Vascular Endothelium. Physiology, pathology, and Therapeu-tic Opportunities. Schattauer. Stuttgart 1997

[23] Lethonen-Smeds E.M., Mayaranpaa M., Lindsberg PJ., et al. Carotid plaque mast cells as-sociate with atherogenic serum lipids, high grade carotid stenosis and symptomatic carotid artery disease. Results from the Helsinki carotid endarterectomy study. Cerebrovasc. Dis.

2005; 19: 291–301

[24] Naghavi M., Libby P., Falk E., et al. From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:

a call for new defi nitions and risk assessment strategies – Part I. Circulation 2003; 108:


[25] Naghavi M., Libby P., Falk E., et al. From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient:

a call for new defi nitions and risk assessment strategies – Part II. Circulation 2003; 108:


[26] Rumberger J.A., Brent S.D., Fitzpatrick L.A., et al. Coronary artery calcium area by elec-tron-beam computed tomography and coronary artery plaque area: a histopathologic cor-relative study. Circulation 1995; 92: 2157–2162

[27] Nissen S.E. Identifying patients at risk: novel diagnostic techniques. Eur. Heart J. 2004; 6:


[28] Lerman A., Zeiher A.M.. Endothelial Function: Cardiac Events. Circulation 2005; 111:


[29] Mizia-Stec K., Gąsior Z., Zahorska-Markiewicz B., et al. The indexes of arterial structure and function in women with simple obesity: a preliminary study. Heart Vessels 2008; 23:


[30] Tsimikas S., Willerson J.T., Ridker P.M. C-reactive protein and other emerging blood bio-markers to optimize risk stratifi cation of vulnerable patients. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2006;

47(8 suppl): C19–C31

[31] Brevetti G., Schiano V., Chiariello M. Cellular adhesion molecules and peripheral arterial disease. Vasc. Med. 2006; 11: 39–47

[32] Silvestro A., Brevetti G., Schiano V., et al. Adhesion molecules and cardiovascular risk in peripheral arterial disease. Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 improves risk strati-fi cation. Thromb. Haemost. 2005; 93: 559–563

[33] Kips J.G., Segers P., Van Bortel L.M. Identifying the vulnerable plaque: A review of inva-sive and non-invainva-sive imaging modalities. Artery Research 2008; 2: 21–34

[34] Rudd J.H., Davies J.R., Weissberg P.L. Imaging of atherosclerosis – can we predict plaque rupture? Trends Cardiovasc. Med. 2005; 15(1): 17–24

[35] Shanahan C.M., Weissberg P.L. Smooth muscle cell heterogeneity – patterns of gene ex-pression in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc.

Biol. 1998; 18(3): 333–338

[36] Libby P. Current concepts of the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndromes. Circula-tion 2001; 104(3): 365–372


[37] Lipinski M.J., Frias J.C., Fayad Z.A. Advances in detection and characterization of athe-rosclerosis using contrast agents targeting the macrophage. J. Nucl. Cardiol. 2006; 13(5):


[38] Undas A., Kolarz M., Kopeć G., Tracz W. Altered fi brin clot properties in patients on long-term haemodialysis: relation to cardiovascular mortality. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2008;

23(6): 2010–2015

[39] Gleissner C.A., von Hundelshausen P., Ley K. Platelet chemokines in vascular disease.

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2008; 28(11): 1920–1927

[40] Rosvall M., Janzon L., Berglund G., et al. Incidence of stroke is related to carotid IMT even in the absence of plaque. Atherosclerosis 2005; 179(2): 325–331

[41] Kieltyka L., Urbina M., Tang R., et al. Framingham risk score is related to carotid Intima-media thickness in both white and black young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Athero-sclerosis 2003; 170: 125–130

[42] del Sol I.A., Bots M.L., Grobbee D.E., et al. Carotid Intima-media thickness at different sites: relation to incident myocardial infarction. The Rotterdam Study. Eur. Heart J. 2002;

23: 934–940

[43] Landini L., Santarelli M.F., Pingitore A., Positano V. New technological developments in the clinical imaging of atherosclerotic plaque. Curr. Pharm. Des. 2003; 9(29): 2403–2415 [44] Barth J.D. Which tools are in your cardiac workshop? Carotid ultrasound, endothelial

function, and magnetic resonance imaging. Am. J. Cardiol. 2001; 87: 8A–14A

[45] Morka J., Krzemińska-Pakuła M., Drozdz J., Morka A. Factors affecting the progression of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. Kardiol. Pol. 2007; 65: 1307–1311

[46] Berry J.D., Liu K., Folsom A.R., et al. Prevalence and Progression of Subclinical Athero-sclerosis in Younger Adults With Low Short-Term but High Lifetime Estimated Risk For Cardiovascular Disease. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Circulation 2009; 119(3): 382–389

[47] Cardiovascular Diseases in Europe Euro Heart Survey and national registries of cardiova-scular diseases and patient management. Sophia Antipolis, France: European Heart House;


[48] Pieniążek P., Kabłak-Ziembicka A., Przewłocki T., et al. Wczesne wyniki stentowania tęt-nic szyjnych z zastosowaniem systemów czasowej protekcji mózgu. Kardiol. Pol. 2004;

61(II): 48–56

[49] Niemiec P., Zak I., Wita K. The D allele of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene inser-tion/deletion polymorphism is associated with the severity of atherosclerosis. Clin. Chem.

Lab. Med. 2008; 46(4): 446–452

[50] Zhang Y., Herbert B.S., Rajashekhar G., et al. Premature senescence of highly proliferative endothelial progenitor cells is induced by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} via the p38 mito-gen-activated protein kinase pathway. FASEB J. 2009 Jan 5. [Epub ahead of print]

[51] Roberts R. Genetics of premature myocardial infarction. Curr. Atheroscle. Rep. 2008;

10(3): 186–193

[52] Nissen S.E., Tuzcu E.M., Libby P., et al; CAMELOT Investigators. Effect of antihyperten-sive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure: the CAMELOT study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292(18):


[53] Salonen R., Nyyssonen K., Porkkala E., et al. Kuopio Atherosclerosis Prevention Stu-dy (KAPS). A population-based primary preventive trial of the effect of LDL lowering on atherosclerotic progression in carotid and femoral arteries. Circulation 1995; 92:


[54] Davis W., Rockway S., Kwasny M. Effect of a Combined Therapeutic Approach of Inten-sive Lipid Management, Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation, and Increased Serum 25 (OH) Vitamin D on Coronary Calcium Scores in Asymptomatic Adults. Am. J. Ther. 2008 Dec 15 [Epub ahead of print]

[55] Pitt B., Byington R.P., Furberg C.D., et al. Effect of Amlodipine on the progression of atherosclerosis and the occurrence of clinical events. PREVENT Investigators. Circulation 2000; 102: 1503–1510

[56] Crouse III J.R., Byington R.P., Bond M.G. Provastatin, lipids, and atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries (PLAC II). Am. J. Cardiol. 1995; 75: 455–459

[57] Furberg C.D., Adams H.P. Jr, Applegate W.B., et al. Effect of lovastatin on early carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events: asymptomatic carotid artery progression study (ACAPS) research group. Circulation 1994; 90: 1679–1687

[58] Ibańez B., Badimon J.J., Garcia MJ. Diagnosis of atherosclerosis by imaging. Am. J. Med.

2009; 122 (1 Suppl): S15–S25

[59] Rudd J.H., Fayad Z.A. Imaging atherosclerotic plaque infl ammation. Nat. Clin. Pract. Car-diovasc. Med. 2008; Suppl 2: S11–S17

[60] Madycki G., Staszkiewicz W., Kuryłowicz M., et al. Ultrasonografi czny obraz niestabilnej szyjnej blaszki miażdżycowej.: Analiza porównawcza wybranych metod komputerowej analizy cyfrowej. Acta Angiol. 2004; 10: 113–126

[61] Biasi G.M., Froio A., Deleo G., et al: What have we learned from the Imaging in Carotid Angioplasty and Risk of Stroke (ICAROS) study? Vascular 2004; 12: 62–68

[62] Eliasziw M., Streifl er J.Y., Fox A.J., et al.: Signifi cance of plaque ulceration in symptoma-tic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. NASCET. Stroke 1994; 25: 304–308 [63] Miyazaki M., Kato K. Measurement of cerebral blood fl ow by ultrasonic doppler

techni-que; hemodynamic comparison of right and left carotid artery in patients with hemiplegia.

Jpn. Circ. J. 1965; 29: 383–386

[64] Korcarz C.E., Hirsch A.T., Bruce C., et al. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Testing by Non-Sonographer Clinicians: The Offi ce Practice Assessment of Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 2008; 21: 117–122

[65] Kabłak-Ziembicka A., Tracz W. Podstawy ultrasonografi i naczyń dogłowowych – normy i standardy badań. W. Echokardiografi a praktyczna. Red. Podolec P., Tracz W., Hoffman P. Medycyna Praktyczna, wyd. I, tom I. Kraków 2004

[66] Hood D.B., Mattos M.A., Mansour A., et al. Prospective evaluation of new duplex criteria to identify 70% Internal carotid stenosis. J. Vasc. Surg. 1996; 23: 254–261

[67] Mansour M.A., Mattos M.A., Hood D.B., et al.: Detection of total occlusion, string sign, and preocclusive stenosis of the Internal carotid artery by color-fl ow duplex scanning. Am.

J. Surg. 1995; 170: 154–158

[68] Hwang C.S., Shau W.Y., Tegeler C.H. Doppler velocity criteria baced on receiver opera-ting characteristic analysis for the detection of threshold carotid stenosis. J. Neuroimaging 2002; 12: 124–130

[69] Bots M.L., Hoes A.W., Koudstaal P.J., et al. Common carotid Intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction. The Rotterdam Study. Circulation 1997; 96:


[70] Heiss G., Sharett A.R., Barnes R., et al. – the ARIC investigators. Carotid atherosclerosis measured by B-mode ultrasound in populations: association with cardiovascular risk fac-tors in the ARIC study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1991; 134: 250–256

[71] Held C., Hjemdahl P., Eriksson S.V., et al. Prognostic implications of Intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid and femoral arteries in patients with stable angina pectoris. Eur. Heart J. 2001; 22: 11–14

[72] Kabłak-Ziembicka A., Przewłocki T., Kostkiewicz M., et al. Ocena zależności pomiędzy grubością kompleksu Intima-media a czynnikami ryzyka miażdżycy i zaawansowaniem choroby wieńcowej. Przegl. Lek. 2003; 60: 612–616


[73] Sosnowski C., Pasierski T., Janeczko-Sosnowska E., et al. Przydatność ultrasonografi cz-nej oceny miażdżycy tętnic szyjnych i udowych w ocenie ryzyka choroby wieńcowej. Pol.

Przegl. Kardiol. 2005; 7: 389–395

[74] O’Leary D.H., Polak J.F., Kronmal R.A., et al. Carotid-artery Intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 340: 14–22

[75] Lisowska A., Musiał W.J., Knapp M., et al. Carotid and femoral atherosclerotic lesions in patients with coronary heart disease confi rmed by angiography Kardiol. Pol. 2005; 63:


[76] O’Leary D.H., Polak J.F., Kronmal R.A., et al. Carotid-artery Intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999;

340: 14–22

[77] Gepner A.D., Wyman R.A., Korcarz C.E., et al. An Abbreviated Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Scanning Protocol to Facilitate Clinical Screening for Subclinical Atheroscle-rosis. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 2007; 20: 1269–1275

[78] Nowak J., Nilson T., Sylven C., Jogestrand T. Potential of carotid ultrasonography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: A comparison with exercise test and variance ECG.

Stroke 1998; 29: 439–446

[79] Sakaguchi M, Kitagawa K, Nagai Y, et al. Equivalence of plaque score and Intima-media thickness of carotid ultrasonography for predicting severe coronary artery lesions. Ultra-sound Med. Biol. 2003; 29: 367–371

[80] Zannad F., Sass C., Visvikis S. Environmental and genetic determinants of Intima-media thickness of the carotid artery. Clin. Exp Pharmacol. Physiol. 2001; 28: 1007–1010 [81] Horita Y, Tadokoro M, Taura K, et al. Relationship between carotid artery Intima-media

thickness and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis in type 2 diabetes with hypertension.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2002; 25: 255–259

[82] Lorenz M.W., von Kegler S., Steinmetz H., et al. Carotid Intima-media thickening indi-cates a higher vascular risk across a wide age range: prospective data from the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS). Stroke 2006; 37: 87–92

[83] Benedetto F.A., Mallamaci F., Tripepi G., Zoccali C. Prognostic value of ultrasonographic measurement of carotid Intima media thickness in dialysis patients. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.

2001; 12: 2458–2464

[84] Bots M.L., Baldassarre D., Simon A., et al. Carotid Intima-media thickness and coronary atherosclerosis: weak or strong relations? Eur. Heart J. 2007; 28: 398–406

[85] Lisowska A., Musiał W.J., Lisowski P., et al. Intima-media thickness is a useful marker of the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with impaired renal function. Atheroscle-rosis 2008 Jun 5. [Epub ahead of print]

[86] Simons P.C.G., Algra A., Eikelboom B.C., et al. Carotid artery stenosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease: the SMART study. J. Vasc. Surg. 1999; 30: 519–525

[87] Kablak-Ziembicka A., Tracz W., Przewlocki T., et al. Association of increased carotid in-tima-media thickness with the extent of coronary artery disease. Heart 2004; 90: 1286–


[88] Adams M.R., Nakagomi A., Keech A. Carotid intima-media thickness in only weakly correlated with the extent and severity of coronary artery disease. Circulation 1995; 92:


[89] Kablak-Ziembicka A., Przewlocki T., Tracz W., et al. Gender differences in carotid Intima-media thickness in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 2005;

96: 1217–1222

[90] Murakami S., Otsuka K., Hotta N., et al. Common carotid Intima-media thickness is pre-dictive of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly community-dwelling people:

Longitudinal Investigation for the Longevity and Aging in Hokkaido County (LILAC) study. Biomed Pharmacother 2005; 59(Suppl. 1): S49–S53

[91] Rosvall M., Janzon L., Berglund G., et al. Incident coronary events and case fatality in relation to common carotid Intima media thickness. J. Intern. Med. 2005; 257: 430–437 [92] Holaj R., Spacil J., Petrasek J., et al. Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery

is the signifi cant predictor of angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Can J. Car-diol. 2003; 19: 670–676

[93] Kitamura A., Iso H., Imano H., et al. Carotid Intima-media thickness and plaque characte-ristics as a risk factor for stroke in Japanese elderly men. Stroke 2004; 35: 2788–2794 [94] Salonen R., Salonen J.T. Progression of carotid atherosclerosis and its determinants:

a population-based ultrasonography study. Atherosclerosis 1990; 81: 33–40

[95] Chambless L.E., Heiss G., Folsom A.R., et al. Association of coronary heart disease inci-dence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987–1993. Am. J. Epidemiol 1997; 146: 483–494 [96] Dijk J.M., van der Graaf Y., Bots M.L., et al. Carotid Intima-media thickness and the risk

of new vascular events in patients with manifest atherosclerotic disease: the SMART stu-dy. Eur. Heart J. 2006; 27: 1971–1978

[97] Hodis H.N., Mack W.J., LaBree L., et al. The role of carotid arterial Intima-media thi-ckness in predicting clinical coronary events. Ann. Intern. Med. 1998; 128: 262–269 [98] Lacroix P., Aboyans V., Espaliat E., et al. Carotid Intima-media thickness as predictor of

secondary events after coronary angioplasty. Int Angiol 2003; 22: 279–283

[99] Folsom A.R., Chambless L.E., Duncan B.B., et al. Prediction of coronary heart disease in middle-aged adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 2777–2784

[100] Yamasaki Y., Kodama M., Nishizawa H., et al. Carotid Intima-media thickness in japanese type 2 diabetic subjects: predictors of progression and relationship with incident coronary heart disease. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 1310–1131

[101] Nishizawa Y., Shoji T., Maekawa K., et al. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery pre-dicts cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2003; 41:


[102] Benedetto F.A., Tripepi G., Mallamaci F., Zoccali C. Rate of atherosclerotic plaque forma-tion predicts cardiovascular events in ESRD. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2008; 19(4): 757–763 [103] Łukaszewicz R., Łukaszewicz M., Ceremużynski L. Risk factors of atherosclerosis in

premenopausal women with a sense of well-being. A pilot study. Kardiol. Pol. 2006; 64:


[104] Kłosiewicz-Wąsek B., Ceremużyński L., Poloński L., et al. Association between carotid artery atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in young females. Reference to sex hor-mone profi le. Kardiol. Pol. 2008; 66: 127–132

[105] Kullo I.J., Malik A.R. Arterial ultrasonography and tonometry as adjuncts to cardiovascu-lar risk stratifi cation. JACC 2007; 49: 1413–1426

[106] Stein J.H., Fraizer M.C., Aeschlimann S.E., et al. Vascular age: Integrating carotid Intima-media thickness measurements with global coronary risk assessment. Clin. Cardiol. 2004;

27: 388–392

[107] Gepner A.G., Keevil J.G., Wyman R.A., et al. Use of carotid Intima-media thickness and

“vascular age” to modify cardiovascular risk prediction. J. Am. Soc. Echocardiogr. 2006;

19: 1170–1174

[108] Roman M.J., Naqvi T.Z., Gardin J.M., et al. Clinical application of noninvasive vascu-lar ultrasound in cardiovascuvascu-lar risk stratifi cation: a report from the American Society of


Echocardiography and the Society of Vascular Medicine and Biology. J. Am. Soc. Echo-cardiogr. 2006; 19: 943–954

[109] Bard R.L., Kalsi H., Rubenfi re M., et al. Effect of carotid atherosclerosis screening on risk stratifi cation during primary cardiovascular disease prevention. Am. J. Cardiol. 2004;

93: 1030–1032

[110] Blake G.J., Ridker P.M: Novel clinical markers of vascular wall infl ammation. Circ. Res.

2001; 89: 763–771

[111] Zebrack J.S., Anderson J.L.: Role of infl ammation and infection in cardiovascular disease.

Curr. Cardiol. Reports 2002; 4: 278–288

[112] Koenig W., Sund M., Frohlich M., et al. C-Reactive protein, a sensitive marker of infl am-mation, predicts future risk of coronary heart disease in initially healthy middle-aged men: results from the MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Augsburg Cohort Study, 1984 to 1992. Circulation 1999; 99: 237–242

[113] Ridker P.M., Rifai N., Stampfer M.J., Hennekens C.H. Plasma concentration of Interleu-kin-6 and the risk of future myocardial infarction among apparently healthy men. Circula-tion 2000; 101: 1767–1772

[114] Lindmark E., Diderholm E., Wallentin L., Siegbahn A. Relationship between Interleukin 6 and mortality in patients with unstable coronary artery disease: effects of an early inva-sive or noninvainva-sive strategy. JAMA 2001; 286: 2107–2113

[115] Violi F., Criqui M., Longoni A., Castiglioni C. Relation between risk factors and car-diovascular complications in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Results from the A.D.E.P. study. Atherosclerosis 1996; 120: 25–35

[116] Vainas T., Stassen F.R., de Graff R., et al. C-reactive protein in peripheral arterial disease:

relation to severity of the disease and to future cardiovascular events. J. Vasc. Surg. 2005;

42: 243–51

[117] Torzewski M., Rist C., Mortensen R.F. et al. C-reactive protein in the arterial Intima: role of C-reactive protein receptor-dependent monocyte recruitment in atherogenesis. Arterio-scler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2000; 20: 2094–2099

[118] Anderson J.L, Carlquist J.F, Muhlestein J.B, et al: Evaluation of C-reactive protein, an infl ammatory marker, and infectious serology as risk factors for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 1998; 32: 35–41

[119] Löwe G.D.O., Fowkes F.G.R., Dawes J., et al. Blood viscosity, fi brinogen, and activation of coagulation and leukocytes in peripheral arterial disease and the normal population in the Edinburgh Artery Study. Circulation 1993; 87: 1915–20

[120] Blankenberg S., Rupprecht H.J., Bickel C., et al., for the AtheroGene Investigators. Circu-lating cell adhesion molecules and death in patients with coronary artery disease. Circula-tion 2001; 104: 1336–1342

[121] Zdrojewski T., Chwojnicki K., Bandosz P., et al. Distribution of C-reactive protein and its relation to arterial hypertension in a country representing a high-risk region for cardiova-scular diseases. Blood pressure 2006; 15: 20–26

[122] Danesh J., Wheeler J.G., Hirschfi eld G.M. et al. C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of infl ammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N. Engl. J. Med.

2004; 350: 1387–1397

[123] Cushman M., Arnold A.M., Psaty B.M., et al. C-reactive protein and the 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease in older men and women: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

Circulation 2005; 112: 25–31

[124] Pearson T.A., Mensah G.A., Alexander R.W., et al. Markers of infl ammation and cardiova-scular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2003; 107: 499–511

[125] Owens C.D., Ridker P.M., Belkin M., et al. Elevated C-reactive protein levels are associa-ted with postoperative events in patients undergoing lower extremity vein bypass surgery.

J. Vasc. Surg. 2007; 45: 2–9

[126] Luc G., Bard J.M., Juhan-Vague I., et al. C-reactive protein, Interleukin- 6, and fi brinogen

[126] Luc G., Bard J.M., Juhan-Vague I., et al. C-reactive protein, Interleukin- 6, and fi brinogen

W dokumencie Wielopoziomowa miażdżyca tętnic : czynniki prognostyczne zaawansowania i występowania incydentów sercowo-naczyniowych oraz możliwości terapeutyczne (Stron 122-149)