The state and the need for polish studies on the history of Azerbaijan

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A C T A U N I V E R S I T A T I S L O D Z I E N S I S

F O L IA C A U C A S I C A 2, 1987

Ju lian K arol J a n c za k

THE STATE A N D THE NEED FO R PO LISH STUDIES O N TH E H ISTO RY O F A ZER B A IJA N

T h e P o lish stu d ie s on th e h is to ry of A z e rb a ija n m ay seem a t th e firs t g la n c e to h a v e e x tr e m e ly long tr a d itio n s as th e y d a te b a c k to 15th ce n tu r y . A p r e c u r so r of th e se stu d ie s m ay b e c o n sid e re d th e v e n e ra b le 15th c e n tu r y h isto ria n J a n D ługosz. T h e o rig in s of h is in te r e st in th e C au c asu s affa irs w e r e as follow s. In 15th c e n tu ry , on th e te rr ito r y of th e p r e s e n t A z e rb a ija n th e r e ex isted sta te s c r e a te d by th e T u r k m en c o n q u e r o r s i.e. th e s ta te of th e so -calle d B lack Ram (K ara-K oy un w u) a n d of th e W h ite Ram (A k -K o yu n w u )1.

T h e s ta te of th e W h ite R am ru led b y U z u n H a s a n ca m e to p lay a sig n ific a n t ro le in th e sec o n d h alf of 15th c e n tu ry . Its c a p ita l w a s T eb riz ly in g in so u th e rn A z er b a ijan , an d its p o ssessio n s en c o m p a ssed a c o n sid e r ab le p a r t of th e C a u ca su s a n d p a r ts of th e p r e s e n t Ir an an d Iraq . T his s ta te r e p r e s e n te d a ser io u s c o u n te rw e ig h t fo r O tto m a n T u rk e y . In th e se v e n tie s of 15th c e n tu r y , U zu n H a sa n trie d to e sta b lish d ip lom atic re la tio n s w ith n u m e ro u s E u ro p e an sta te s, am o n g o th e rs w ith J a g e llo n ia n s ta te a n d o r g an iz e th e a n tiT u r k ish c o a litio n 2. U zun H a -sa n 's en v o y s a r r iv e d a t th e c o u r t of th e P o lish K ing C asim ir in 1474 p r o p o sin g a n allia n ce a n d a m a rr ia g e of U zu n H a sa n 's d a u g h te r w ith K in g C a sim ir 's son. It w as to th e se p ro b lem s th a t D łu gosz d e v o ted a little m ore of h is a tten tio n . A n y w ay , th e h isto ria n w as n o t too w e ll ac q u a in te d w ith C a u c a s ia n I ra n ian affairs callin g U zu n H a sa n e r r o -n eo u sly a r u le r of th e P er sia -n s ta t e 3. 1 D. M . I b r a g i m o v , F e o d a l n y e g o s u d a r s t v a n a t e r r i t o r i A z e r b a j d i a n a X V v e k a , B ak u 1963, p. 37. 2 J. M . M a c h m u d o v , V z a i m o o l n o i e n i j a g o s u d a r s t v a A k - K o j u n l ' u с V e n e c i e j {60— 70 g g. X V v e k a ) , B ak u 1966, p. 21— 22. 3 J. D ł u g o s z , O p e r a o m n i a , v o l. 14, C r a c o v ia c 1878, p. 601— 602.

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T h e p r o p e r in te re st in th e p eo p le s of th e C a u c asu s b eg an to be d isp lay e d b y P o les a t th e tim e w h e n s ta r tin g fro m 16th an d 17Lh c e n -tu r ie s m u -tu al tr a d e re la tio n s b eg an to p la y a g ro w in g ro le an d w h en th e C ath o lic m ission s of th e Je su its and the C arm e lite m onk s be ^an th e ir a c tiv ity th e re . T h e m ission s w e r e la rg e ly com p o sed of th e m onks of P olish e x tra c tio n . O n e of such m onk s w o rk in g in A z e rb aijan an d A rm e n ia w as T a d e u sz K ru siń ski. H e sta y e d in th e C au c asu s b etw een 1705 an d 1726. A fter his re tu rn to P o la n d he w ro te se v e r a l w o rk s in L atin d e v o ted to P er sian -A fg h a n w a r s d esc rib in g e x te n siv e ly am on g o th er s p ro b lem s co n n e c te d w ith th e h isto ry of th e C a u c asu s in the iirątt hallf of 18th c e n tu ry an d, th u s, w ith th e h is to ry of A z erb a ijan , A rm en ia , G e org ia a n d D ag estan , as w e ll a s cu sto m s a n d living co n d i-tion s of th e in h a b ita n ts of th e se co u n trie s. K ru siiisk i's w orks, w hich w e r e tr a n s la te d into m an y fo reig n lan g u ag e s an d p u blish ed in m an y c o u n trie s in th e tim es p ast, a r e p e rh a p s th e m ost v a lu a b le so u rc e of in fo rm a tio n for stu d ie s on th e C a u c asu s of th a t tim e, alth o u g h th ey h a v e b ee n u tilize d b y sc h o la r s to a n in sig n ific a n t d eg r ee as yet.

A sp ec ial ro le in th e P o lish stu d ie s on th e C au c a sia n sta te s an d n a tio n s w as p la y e d b y th e p a r tic ip a n ts in th e N o v e m b e r In su rr ec tio n of 1830 fo rc efu lly e n liste d into th e R u ssian ar m y a n d b y th e m em bers o f v a rio u s p a trio tic o rg a n iza tio n s, w ho af te r b ein g a r r e s te d w e re u s u -a lly se n te n c e d to lo n g -te rm -a rm y s er v ic e in th e C -au c-a sus. A ll in -all inc lu d in g so ld iers from o rd in a ry co n sc ip tio n s ten s of th o u san d s of P oles stay e d in th e C a u c a sia n sta tes. A m ong th em th e r e w e r e also e d u -c a te d p eo p le su-ch as stu d en ts, tea -c h e rs, -c ler k s an d r e p r e se n ta tiv e s of th e le a r n e d p rofe ssio ns. It o ften h a p p en ed th a t th e b ea u tifu l local la n d -scape, q u ite d iffere n t re lig io u s b eliefs an d cu sto m s of th e C au ca sia n n atio n s w o u ld g e n e ra te liv e ly in te re st an d so m etim e s also sy m p a th y am o ng th e ex iles. A s a r e s u lt th e re w o uld be w r itte n n u m e ro u s r e la -tions, re p o rts, d e x c rip tio n s etc. o f te n tim e co n tain in g a lot of p re c io u s in fo rm a tio n from d iffe re n t sp h e re s of life. J u s t lik e th e w ork s of K ru -siń sk i th e y g e n e ra lly c o n ce rn e d all th e C au ca sia n sta te s, alth o u g h to a d iffe ren t d eg re e. A cco rd in g ly , th e p r e s e n t re v ie w w ill p re s e n t the silh o u tes a n d r e p o rts of o nly th ose ex iles, w h ich a r e of the g r e a te s t im p o rtan ce for th e P olish stu d ie s on A ze rb aija n .

T h e long list of su ch e x ile s is o p en e d by H ip o lit (Jan?) Ja w o rs k i se n te n c e d to p e n a l m ilita ry co m p an ie s in th e C a u c a su s for p a r tic ip a -tion in th e N o v e m b e r I n su rr ec tio n . H e sp en t 11 y e a rs th ere. In the e a r ly fo r ties h e w as p ro m o ted to th e r a n k of n o n -c o m m issio n ed officer an d n e x t to th a t of officer for his p e rso n a l b ra v e r y , fn 1846 h e r e t u r -n ed to P ola-n d. His fra g m e-n ts of C au c asia-n re m i-n isc e -n ce s w ere

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publj-shed in th e „G a zeta C o d zien n a " (D aily G azette) in th e y e a r s 1858— 1859 an d th eir co m p le te v o lu m e e n title d „ W sp o m n i e n i a K a u k a z u " (M em o-ries of th e C au c asu s) ca m e o u t in P o zna ń in 1877. B esides a h isto ric al in tro d u ctio n h e in c lu d e d in h is book, am o ng o th ers, d e sc rip tio n s of th e n a tu re of th e C au casu s, ec o n o m ic re la tio n s in A z e rb a ijan , In d ia n te m p les of f ir e -w o rsh ip p e rs a t S u ru k h an , as w e ll a s d e scr ip tio n s of m a n y A z e r b a ija n i to w n s su ch as G aku, S h em ak h a, K uba, G an d zh a an d L en k oran.

K azim ierz Ł apc zy ń sk i, a c o n stru c tio n e n g in e e r, fo u n d h im self in th e C a u c a su s in a sim ilar w ay . In 1844 h e w a s fo rc efu lly e n liste d in to th e ts a r's ar m y fo r his p a trio tic ac tiv ity . H is r o u te in th e C au ca su s w e n t fir st a lo n g th e co ast of th e C asp ia n S ea from D e rb e n t to S u m g ait n e a r Baku, an d from B aku to S h em akh a a n d Tifilis. A s a n o fficer of the e n g in e e rin g c o r p s h e w as se n t to N a k h itch e v a n , w h e re h e w a s to s u p e r v ise w o rk s o n c o n stru c tio n of a m ilita r y h o sp ital. Th us, h e w a s to cr o ss a g a in th e te r r it o r y of A ze rb a ija n , this tim e a c ro ss its w e s te r n p a r t. O n r e tu r n to P o lan d, h e inclu ded , am o n g o th ers, m u ch in fo rm a

-tion ab o u t N a k h itc h e v a n , its p a st a n d h is to r ic a l m o n u m en ts in th e d e sc rip tio n s of h is tr a v e ls p u b lish e d in th e „T y g o d n ik I lu s tro w a n y " (I lu stra ted W e ek ly ) in th e y e a r s 1966— 1968.

A z e rb a ijan r e c e i v e d also a g re a t d ea l of a tte n tio n in th e m em oirs of M icha ł B uto w t-A n d rz ejk o w icz, w h o did in th e C au c a su s h is p en a l m ilita ry se r v ic e fo r p a r tic ip a tio n in th e c o n s p ira cy of S zym on K o -n ar sk i. H e h a d first sp e -n t se v e r a l y e a r s i-n Tifilis, a -n d th e -n h is m ili-t a r y u n iili-t w a s ili-tr a n sf e r r e d ili-to T em ir- K h an -S h u ra in D a a e sili-ta n a c ro ss ili-th e te r r ito r y of A z erb aijan , a n d n a m e ly th ro u g h S ham bo r, G an d zh a, Sha- lakh , ac ro ss th e S h y rm an sk P la in s to S hem ak h a, a n d n e x t th ro u a h Baku, K uba an d D erb en t. M ic h ał B u to w tA n d rzejk o w icz in h is tw o v o -lu m e m em o irs e n title d S z k ic e K a u k a zu (S k etch es of th e C au ca su s) o u b- lish ed in W a r sa w in 1859 p r e s e n te d h is in te r e stin g o b se r v a tio n s of th e c o u n try an d in h ab ita n ts of A z e rb aija n , th e ir m en ta lity , r e lig io u s c u -sto m s alo n g w ith a c c u r a te r e m a rk s ab o u t th e sp re ad in g u se of th e A z e rb aija n i la n g u a g e , w h ich in th e C au c a su s an d in th e a re a b e tw e e n th e C a u c a su s a n d In d ia p la y ed a r o le sim ilar to th a t of th e F r e n c h lan g u a g e in Eu rop e.

O f th e g r e a te s t im p o rtan c e in th is li te r a r y w o r k s of m em oirs an d d e sc r ip tiv e c h a ra c te r is th e w o rk of M ateu sz G ralew sk i, a so n of a p e a s a n t from M azew v illa g e n e a r Łęczy ca. H e o b tain e d h is e d u c a tio n o w in g •'to p r o te c tio n e x te n d e d to him b y a lo cal le ase h o ld er . H a -v in g b e e n a r r e s te d for h is p a trio tic ac ti-v ity , h e w a s se n te n c ed to th e co m p u lso ry m ilitar y se r v ic e in th e C au ca su s in 1844. H e w a s d oin g

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it m a in ly in A z e rb a ija n till 1856, an d h e w a s p ro m o te d to th e officer r a n k in th e ar m y h e a d q u a rte r s . A fte r h is r e tu r n to P o land, h e c o n ti-n u ed h is a c tiv e social a ti-n d p a tr io tic w ork. Iti-n 1877, h e p u b lish ed his o b se r v a tio n s in Lv ov in a v e r y b u lk y v o lu m e (560 p ag es) e n title d

K au ka z. W s p o m n ie n ia z d w u n a st o l e tn ie j niewo li. O p isa n ie kraju. L u d-ność. Z w y c z a j e i o b y c za je (The C au casu s. R ec o lle ction s from 12 y e a r s'

im p rison m en t. D e sc rip tio n of th e c o u n try . P op u latio n . C usto m s and T r a -dition s).

M ateu sz G ra le w sk i d e sc rib ed in g r e a t d e ta il m a n y to w n s in w h ich he w as doing his a r m y serv ice. Thu s, he d esc rib e d in tu r n e.g. D e rb en t ly in g in D a g esta n b u t h isto ric a lly co n n e c te d w ith A z e rb a ijan , its le -g en ds, m on u m en ts of a r c h ite c tu r e a n d fo lk custo m s, n e x t — . O ld and N ew K uba, a m ilita ry se ttle m e n t a t K u sary , B aku — th e ca p ital of th e p r e s e n t A z erb aija n , th e tem p le a t S u ru k h an , th e to w n s of S hem akh. N u k h a and G an d zh a. H e w as also fa sc in a ted b y an d d esc rib e d w ith p re c isio n of a n e th n o g r a p h ic r e p o r t th e folk leg e n d s a n d cu sto m s and. e sp e cially , th o se c o n n e cte d w ith M o slem beliefs, re lig io u s so ng s an d w e d d in g cere m o n ies. M o re o v e r, h e in clud ed in his w ork a g re a t d eal of in fo rm atio n a b o u t th e s ta te of road s, f e r tility of soil, p o st station s, etc. T ak in g all this into acc ou n t, it ca n be sa id th a t G ra lew sk i co llected v e r y rich m a te r ia ls g iv in g a goo d in sig h t into n o r th e r n A z erb aijan , w h ich h as n o t b e e n fu lly u tilize d in scien tific stu d ies so far.

T h e n e x t a u th o r d e sc rib in g th is re g io n w as Ju liu sz S tru ty ń sk i w h o w a s w ritin g u n d e r a p e n -n a m e of S as-B erlicz. A s a tsa r 's officer he w a s do in g h is a rm y se r v ic e in th e C au c a su s in th e fo r ties of 19th c e n tu r y , first at Tifilis, n e x t a t N a k h itc h e v a n a n d o th e r to w n s of A z er -b aijan . It is q u ite p o ssi-b le th a t h e m a ste re d th e A z e r-b a ijan i la n q u a c e. H e w a s in te re ste d in th e p a st h is to r y a n d th e th en life of th e co u n try , in lo cal so n gs an d leg en d s. O n e of th em b e ca m e a b a sis for h is li te -r a -r y w o -r k ab o u t G iul-S h ada, w hich w as p u b lish e d in Lvov in 1872. In h is o th e r b o o k s su c h as M iscela ne a p u b lish e d in V iln iu s in 1855 en d Kilka ba dań g eo lo g ic zn y c h i d z ie j o w y c h K a u ka zu (S ev e ra l p sao lo - g ic al an d h isto ric al stu d ies of the C au ca sus), w h ich ca m e o u t in B erlin in 1857, h e p re se n te d a w e a lth of in fo rm atio n from th e sp h e re of g e o -log y, o ld er an d m o re r e c e n t h isto ry , a n d eco n o m ic re la tio n s in his c o n te m p o r a ry A z erb a ijan .

T h e re la tio n s a b o u t A z e rb a ija n w ritte n b y A le k s a n d e r C hod źk o w e re co n ce iv ed in a so m e w h a t d if fe re n t w ay. H e w as a frie n d of A d am M ickiew icz, and a ta le n te d p o et as w ell as a d istin g u ish ed P o -lish o rien ta list. C h od źko stu d ie d th e E aste rn la n g u ag e s in P e tersb u r g w h e r e one of his le c tu r e rs w as D jafar M irza T o p tch y b a sh a , an

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Ажсх-b aija n i. In 1829 he w a s se n t to T eАжсх-briz, w h e r e h e w as to Ажсх-b e a tr a n s la to r in Lhe R u ssian co n su late . W h ile stay in g in B aku h e se n t se v e ra l r e -p orts, w h ich in th eir R u siian tra n sla tio n a -p -p e a r e d in a m aga zin e „L ite-r a tu ite-r n a ja G azeta" . T h ey c o n tain e d d e sc ite-rip tio n s of B aku a n d its a ite-r c h i-tecto nic m on u m en ts, d esc rip tio n s of its en v iro n s, includ in g am o ng o th e rs th e tem p le a t S u ru k h an , an d th e leg e n d s an d sto rie s b e lo n g in g to th e A z er b aijan i fo lklore. H is in te r e st in th e m a ter ia l c u ltu re and, e sp e c ially , in th e fo lk lo r e of th e A z e rb aija n i v illa g e s a n d to w ns g r e w e v e n stro n g e r in T eb riz, w h e re he w r o te d o w n m an y leg en d s a n d folk songs, am on g o th e rs ab o u t a n o b le h ig h la n d ro b b e r K oro gh l o r S y n

ślepca (Son of a b lind m an). H e m ade a g o o d u se of them la te r on in

h is n u m ero u s scien tific stu d ies p u b lish e d for th e ir m o st p a r t in F r a n c e an d Eng lan d.

R e la tio n sh ip s b e tw e e n th e P olish an d th e A z e rb a ija n i l ite r a tu r e s ta r te d also in th e seco nd q u a r te r of 19th c e n tu r y . T h e ir p io n ee r can be said to be a y o u n g P o lish o rie n ta lis t an d a ta le n te d p o et W ła d y -sław S p itzn agel, a frie n d of Ju liu sz S ło w ack i. W h ile stu d y in g th e E a s-tern lan g u a g e s in P e te rs b u r g u n d er su p e r v isio n of D jafar M irza T opt- ch y b a sh a h e tr a n sla te d in to F r e n c h a big fr ag m e n t of th e classica l w o rk Is ka n d e r N a m e b y N izam i from G an d zha, o ne of th e first A z e r-b a ija n i p o e ts from 12th ce n tu r y . T h e g r e a t a c h ie v e m en t of S p itzn ag el la y in th e fa ct th a t h is tr a n sla tio n w as o ne of th e e a r l ie s t tra n s la tio n s of a n y of N iza m i's p oem s in to a E u ro p e a n lan g u ag e .

S om e of th e P ole s sta y in g in th e C au ca su s p o sse sse d li te r a r y t a -len ts. C o n se q u en tly , a p a r t from d e scr ip tio n s a n d re p o rts, th e re w e re also w ritte n n u m er o u s lite r a r y w o r k s su c h as po em s, sto ries, sh o rt sto -ries, an d n ov els, w h ic h w o u ld so m etim e s p r e s e n t th e social an d c u l-tu ra l sil-tu a tio n in T r a n sc a u c a s ia d u r in g th a t ep o c h . T h e w o rk s of this k in d d e s e rv e a sp ec ia l m e n tio n h e r e d u e to th e ir stro n g im p a ct on re a d e r s a n d th e fa ct th a t th e y sh a p e d in th is w a y a c e rta in ste r e o ty p e im ag e of th e C a u c a sia n state s. T h e w r ite r s w e r e a t tr a c te d first of all by ex o tic e le m e n ts of th e M o slem A z e rb a ijan .

T h e sto ry of Ju liu sz S tru ty ń sk i e n title d O b r a z y z n a tury . Giul-Szada.

Pow ieść w s ch o d n i a (P ictu res fro m n a tu re . G iul-S h ada. T h e e s te r n sto ry )

w as also of a lite r a r y c h a r a c te r. It w as b a se d on th e life of an A z e r -b a ija n i — M ehm ed H a d ja a n d h is -b e au tifu l w ife — G iu l-S h ad a. H o w e-v er, in th is ty p e of l ite r a r y o u tp u t it w a s W ła d y sła w S tr zeln ick i w ho d istin g u ish e d him self. F o r h is c o n sp ira tio n a l a c tiv ity d u rin g his a c a d e -m ic stu d ie s in K iev h e w as se n te n c e d to p e n a l ar -m y se r v ic e in D ag e-sta n an d A z erb a ijan . H e d ied in his y o u n g age, b u t d e sp ite th a t he m a ster e d th e A z er b a ija n i la n g u a g e a n d left q u ite a sig n ific an t lite ra r y

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o u tp u t, in w h ich the fir st p la ce is h eld b y his c o n tr o v e rs ia l n o v el M cih- m |u^qk. T h is n o v e l w a s p u b lish e d tw ice in P o lish in 1847 a n d 1860, an d its R u ssian tr a n sla tio n cam e o u t in Tifilis in 1848. W h e n d esc rib in g co m p lica ted a d v e n tu r e s of th e title h ero, S trz eln ic k i p re se n te d in a s a -tir ic al w a y th e re la tio n s in A z e rb a ija n a t th e tim e of tra n sf o rm a tio n s o c cu rrin g u n d e r in flu en c e of this c o u n tr y 's c o n tac t w ith th e E u ro p ean c u ltu r e .

In th e se co n d h a lf of 19th c e n tu ry , so ld iers co n tin u ed to r e p r e se n t a b ig g er p a r t of all P o le s sta y in g in T r a n sc a u c a sia . A c co rd in g to th e p o p u latio n c en su s fro m 1897, th e n u m b e r of P ole s r e a c h e d 15 000 th ere, w ith m o st of th e m liv in g in th e G e o r g ia n g u b e rn iy a s a n d in K a rsk d i-stric t. M o re th a n tw o -th ird s of all P o le s w e re so ld ie rs a n d m em b ers of th eir fam ilies. In B ak u a n d E lizav e tp o l g u b e r n iy a s , w h ich w e r e in c o r-p o r a te d in to A z e rb a ija n la te r on, th e r e w e r e o v e r 2000 P oles, w ith so l-d ie rs a n l-d m em b ers of th e ir fam ilies a c co u n tin g for o n ly o n e -th irl-d of them . T h is in d ic ate s th a t to w a rd s th e e n d of 19th c e n tu r y , tw o -th ird s of all P o les c am e to A z e r b a ija n of th e ir o w n fr ee w ill. In o th e r p ar ts o f T ra n sca u c asia , th e s h a r e of P oles sta y in g th e r e fo r p ro fe ssio n al an d p e rs o n a l re a so n s w a s lo w e r bu t, for ex a m p le , in T ifilis a lo n e a n d its d istr ic t th e re w e r e o v e r 3000 P oles fo r th ese re aso n s. T h at w a s d u e to th e fa c t th a t a t th a t tim e th e C au ca su s w a s b ec om ing a d e stin a tio n p o in t of n u m e ro u s to u rist tr ip s a n d tr a v e ls for a c u re to h e a lth a n d m in e ral r e s o r ts g a in in g c e r ta in p o p u la rity a lr e a d y th en. H o w e v e r, th e m ain m o tiv e b e h in d a g ro w in g in flo w of P ole s w e r e ec o n o m ic a n d p ro f essio -n a l co -n sid e ra tio -n s. T hu s, for ex am p le , T r a -n sc a u c a sia w as a-n im p o r ta -n t sales m a rk e t fo r g o o d s p ro d u c e d b y te x tile in d u str y in Łódź a n d a su p -p ly so u rc e of co tto n , w h ic h m ad e it n e c e s sa r y fo r in d u s tria lists to m a in ta in q u ite a big n u m b e r of th e ir e m p lo y e e s o n th e spot.

In th e c a se of A z e r b a ija n , a n a tt r a c ti v e fa c to r w as a r a p id d e v e lo p m e n t of th e oil in d u s tr y a t th e e n d of 19th c e n tu r y a n d a h o p e for m a k in g big m o n ey . E q u ally p ro m isin g w e r e o p p o r tu n itie s to find e m p lo y -m e n t in th e s t a te a d -m in istr a tio n , in so-m e k in d s of th e le a r n e d p r o fe s-sio ns, a n d in .c o n s tr u c tio n o f r a ilw a y lines. F ro m am on g th ese P oles, a g r e a t r e n o w n w a s w o n b y W ito ld Z glen ick i, a n e n g in e e r a n d a g e o -lo g ist, w h o fro m 1891 w a s a m a n a g e r of B aku E ssay O ffice. H e w o rk e d o u t im p ro v e d m eth o d s o f oil d rillin g s a n d scien tific m e th o d s of p ro sp e c -tin g for oil d ep o sits. H e g a in e d th e g r e a te s t fam e for his p io n e e r m etho d of d e e p - sea d rillin g s. A p a r t of h is in co m es fro m oil sites, w h ic h h e h ad p u rc h a se d a t th e b e g in n in g of 20 th c e n tu r y , w a s left in h is la st w ill for th e so-called M ia n o w sk i F u n d in W a r sa w , a social in stitu tio n h old ing p a tr o n a g e o v e r th e P o lish c u ltu r e a n d scien c e. D ue to th is b eq u est, th e

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F o u n d atio n re c e iv ed a to tal of alm o st 1.4 m ilion rub les, w h ich w as a h u g e a m o u n t of m o ney b y th e th e n sta n d ar d s . W ito ld Z glen ick i w as ca lled „ th e P o lish N o be l" , and th e p u b lic ity g iv en to th is e v e n t a ro u sed th e in te r e st in th e C a u ca su s am o ng th e P olish soc iety .

T h e ab o v e re v ie w sh o w s th a t till th e o u tb r e a k of th e F ir st W o rld W ar, th es e w er e m ain ly th e P ole s w h o b y f a te d e c ree foun d th e m se lv es in th a t a re a th a t w e re d ea lin g first of all w ith stu d ies on th e h isto ry of A z erb aija n , an d m ore w id e ly w ith th e h isto r y an d r e la tio n s in T r a n s -c a u -ca sian sta tes. H o w ev e r, a lr e a d y in th e se-co n d h alf of 19th -c e n tu r y th er e b e g a n th e sec on d tre n d in th e P o lish stu d ies on T ra n sc a u c a sia, w h en th e p rob le m s of th a t a r ea b e c am e an o b je ct of th e P o lish h isto ria n s' in te re st. A b eg in n in g to su ch stu d ies w as m ad e b y a n u m b er of the au th o rs, w h o fo cu ssed th e ir a tte n tio n o n re la tio n sh ip s b e tw e e n P ola nd an d th e sta te of S a p h av id es. N a tu ra lly , so m e d o u b ts co uld b e e n t e r -tain ed as re g a r d s th e fa ct w h e th e r th e sta te sh o u ld be c o n sid e r ed to b e A z e rb aija n i or Iran ian . M o st c e r ta in ly th e first r u le rs w e re lo cal A z erb a ija n i d y n asts, w h o r e p r e s e n te d th e folk relig io n , w h ich w as shiism in th o se day s. H o w e v er, h a v in g c o n q u e re d th e e n t ir e P ersia th ey m ov ed th eir c ap ita l from A z e r b a ijan i A rd e b il to Isfah an . To an in c re as in g ly b ig g e r d eg r ee , th is sta te b e g a n to ad o p t a c h a r a c te r of a P e r sia n m o n a rch y , a lth o u g h a d ec isiv e ro le w a s p lay e d b y A z e r -b a ija n i e le m e n ts in it. I t a p p e a r s th a t th is state, e s p e c ia lly in 17th ce n tu ry , w as m a in ta in in g v iv id d ip lo m atic c o n ta c ts w ith P olan d. O n th e a r e a of th e p r e s e n t A z e rb a ijan , and n am e ly in G a nd z h a a n d o th e r tow ns, th e r e w e r e o p e r atin g P olish C a th o lic m issio ns. T h ese p ro b lem s w e re an o b je ct of scien tific stu d ies in th e seco n d h alf of 19th c e n tu r y co n d u c te d b y A n to n i M u c h liń sk i4, an o r ie n ta list a n d a h isto rian , and r e s e a r c h e r s d ea lin g w ith h is to r y of th e J e su i t O rd e r , first of all — S ta n isła w Z ałę sk i5. S om e tim e later , th e r e p ro b le m s r e c e iv e d th e a tt e n -tion of J a n S y g ań sk i8, an o rie n ta list T a d e u sz K o w a lsk i7, a K a r a ite p rie st

4 A . M u c h l i ń s k i , M a t e r i a ł y d o d z i e j ó w K o ś c i o ł a p o l s k i e g o w j ę z y k a c h w s c h o d n i c h p o b r a n e [M a te r ia ls for th e h is to r y of th e P o lis h c h u r c h c o l l e c t e d in e a s te r n l a n g u a g e s ] , „ P a m ię tn ik R e li g ijn o -M o r a ln y " 1861, v o l. 7, p. 531— 553. 5 S. Z a ł ę s k i , M i s j e w P e r s j i w X V I i X V I I w i e k u p o d p r o t e k t o r a t e m P o l s k i [M is s io n s in P er s ia in 16th an d 17th c e n tu r ie s u n d e r P o la n d 's p a t r o n a g e ], „ M is je K a t o lic k ie " 1882, v o l . 1, p. 3— 10, 25— 31, 49— 66. * J. S y ą a ń s k i , Z n o t a t e k p o d r ó ż n y c h o. M i c h a ł a W i e c z o r k o w s k i e g o , m i s j o -n a r z a a p o s t o l s k i e g o w P e r s j i 1715— 1720 [S o m e t r a v e l n o t e s of R e v . M ic h a ł W i e -c z o r k o w s k i , a p o sito li-c m is s io n a r y in P e rs ia 1715— 1 72 0], K r a k ó w 1912. 7 Г. K o w a l s k i , O k s . M i c h a ł a W i e c z o r k o w s k i e g o T. J. m i s j o n a r z a p e r s k i e g o p r a c a c h t u r e c k i c h [T u r k is h w o r k s of R e v . M ic h a ł W ie c z o r k o w s k i — P e r s ia n m is s io -n a r y ] , „ R oc z -n ik O r i e -n ta li s t y c z -n y " 1935, v o l. 12, p. 1— 27.

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S e rai S zap szal8, a n d of h is to ria n s S ta n isła w B rzeziń sk i9 an d S ta n isław K o śc ia łk o w sk i10.

To so m e e x te n t, w ith A z e rb a ija n 's h isto ry w as c o n n e cted a sh o rt tr e a tis e of B o lesław S tach o ń c en c er n in g a tte m p ts to e s ta b lis h re la tio n s b y P o la n d w ith th e W h ite Ram s ta te ex istin g in th e se co n d h alf of 15th c e n tu r y o n th e te r r ito r y of to d a y 's A z e r b a ija n 11, w h ic h w as r e -c o r d e d b y J a n D łu gosz in h is a n n als. A n o th e r th in g is th a t b eing p o o rly a c q u a in te d w ith e th n ic p ro b lem s of th e M id d le East, th is a u th o r d id n o t q u ite re a lize th e d iffe ren c e w h ic h e x iste d a t th a t tim e b etw ee n I r a n ia n P ers ia n s an d T u rk ish A z e rb a ija n is a n d T u rk m e n , to w h ich b e -lo n g e d th e tr ib e s co m p osin g th e s ta te of th e W h ite and B lack Ram. A se p a r a te m en tio n sh o u ld b e m ad e of tw o o th e r lite r a r y w orks, w h ic h in so m e w a y a r e c o n n e c ted w ith th e su b je c t in q u e stio n . In 1838, th e r e cam e o u t in W a rs a w , p u b lish ed b y A z er b e jd ż a ń s k ie W y d a w n i-ctw o N a u k o w e (A z erb aija n i S cientific P u b lish e rs) a b oo k w r itte n by a C au ca sian e m ig ra n t M eh m ed Em in R esu lZ ad e a n d e n title d A z e r b e j

d ża n w w a l ce o n ie po d leg ł oś ć (A z erb a ija n in its str u g g le fo r in d e p e n

d en ce). I t w a s w r it te n in a d is tin c tly a n ti S o v ie t spirit, b u t it c o n -ta in e d a g r e a t d ea l of in f o rm a tio n a b o u t th e la te s t h isto ry of A z e r-b aija n . I t sh o u ld r-b e n o ted , h o w e v e r, t h a t th is r-b o o k a lth o u g h p u r-b lish ed in P olish w a s w r itte n b y a n A z e rb a ija n i a u th o r and, h en c e, it h a r d ly fits in to th e r a n g e of th e p re se n t a n a ly sis. O n th e o th e r han d, it is w o r th ad d in g th a t a n in tro d u c tio n to th is b o ok w as w ritte n b y a w ell- -k n o w n p o liticia n fro m th e „ s a n a c ja " reg im e (i.e. P iłsu d sk i s fo llo w ers a f te r 1926) — S tan isław S ied lecki.

In tu rn , e n d e a v o u r s of W y d a w n ic tw o O d d z ia łu K u ltu r y i P ra s y II K o rp u su (The P u b lish in g H o u se of th e D e p a rta m e n t of C u ltu re a n d P re ss of 2nd C o rps) r e s u lt e d in p u b lic atio n of a b o o k in P o lish e n title d

A z e rb e j d ż a n (A z erb aijan ) in Rom e. T h e a u th o r 's n am e w a s g iv e n as

Ju su f Ja n c z a . It is h a r d to sa y w h e th e r h e w as a n A z e rb a ija n i e m ig r a n t

S I T Ś ź s p s z a l , W y o b r a ż e n i a ś w i ę t y c h m u z u ł m a ń s k i c h a w p ł y w y i k o n o g r a - l i c z n e k a t o l i c k i e w P er s ji, i s t o s u n k i p o l s k o - p e r s k i e z a Z y g m u n t a III [I m a g es of m u s lim s a in ts an d c a t h o l ic ic o n o g r a p h i e i n flu e n c e s in P e r s ia P o lis h -P o n s ia n r ela t io n s at t h e tim e o f K in g S i g i s m u n d I II ], W i ln o 1934, p. 156— -157. • S . B r z e z i ń s k i , M.i s j o n a r z e i d y p l o m a c i P o l s c y w P e r s j i w X V I I i X V I I I w i e k u [P o l is h m is s i o n a r i e s a n d d i p lo m a n ts in P e r s ia in 17th a n d 18th c e n t u r i e s ] , „ A n n a le s M i s s i o l o g i c a e ” 19 35, v o l . 7, p. 89— 163. и S. K o ś c i a ł k o w s k i , L' I ran e t l a P o l o g n e â t r a v e r s l e s s i è c l e s , T e h e r a n 1943. il в. S t a c h o ń , P o l s k a w o b e c w e n e c k i c h p r o j e k t ó w u ż y c i a P e r s j i i T a t a r ó w p r z e c i w T u r c j i w d r u g i e j p o ł o w i e X V I w . [P o la n d 's a ttitu d e to V e n e ti a n p la n s of u s i n g P e r s ia a n d T a r ta rs a g a i n s t T u r k e y in t h e s e c o n d h a lf of 16th c e n t u r y ], [in :] P r a c e h i s t o r y c z n e w y d a n e n a u c z c z e n i e 5 0 - l e c i a A k a d e m i c k i e g o K o ł a H i s t o r y k ó w U n i w e r s y t e t u J a n a K a z i m i e r z a w e L w o w i e , L w ó w 1929, p . 151— 159.

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o r it w a s ju s t a p en - n am e of som e P olish a u th o r . T h e book, w as w ritte n in an a n ti-S o v iet sp irit. It c o n tain s, h o w e v er , q u ite a lo t of in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e h isto r y of th is co u n try .

A fte r th e S eco nd W o rld W a r, th e stu d ie s on A z e rb a ija n 's p ro b le m s w e re g re a tly e x p a n d ed in P o land. T h e b ig g est su c c e sses in th is field h av e b e e n sc o r ed b y J a n R e ych m an , a p ro f e sso r of O r ie n ta l stu d ie s a t W a rsa w U n iv e r sity , w h o h a s b e e n in te re ste d in th e p ro b lem s of the C a u c a su s fo r a lon g tim e. H e h a s p u b lis h e d a n u m b e r of b o o k s a b o u t th e P oles, w h o s ta y e d in A z e rb a ija n in 19th c e n tu r y , a n d a b o u t the P o lis h -A ze r b a ija n i c u ltu r a l r e la tio n s in th a t c e n tu ry . As r e g a rd s the fo rm er sub jec t, th e r e co u ld be m en tio n e d h e r e his w o r k ab o u t the P olish clim b ers c o n q u e r in g th e C au c a su s sum m its p u b lish e d in 195412, and a b o ok a b o u t th e P olish tr a v e lle r s in th e M id d le E ast in 19th c e n tu -r y p u b lish e d in 19721:l. W ith -r e g a -r d to th e l a tte -r su b je ct, t h e -r e c o u ld b e liste d h e r e se v e ra l w o rk s a b o u t m u tu a l re la tio n s b e tw e e n A d am M ick iew icz a n d D jaf ar M irza T o p tc h y b a sh a — a n A z e rb a ija n i a n d an o r ie n t a lis t fro m P e te r s b u r g 14, o r a b o u t r e la tio n s h ip s b e tw e e n T ad eu sz Ł ad a-Zab łock i — a P olish p o e t d oin g his a rm y se r v ic e in th e C au c asu s and a w ell-k n o w n A z er b a ija n i in te lle c tu a l — A b b a s K ali-K h an B akik- h a n o v le.

A n o th e r b o o k w o rth m en tio n in g h e r e is th a t w r itte n b y a w ell- -k n o w n li te r a t u r e h isto r ia n W a c ła w K u b a ck i a b o u t th e P o le s in th e C a u casu s, w h ic h w as p u b lish e d in 196916. T h is b o ok a lth o u g h in a li-t e r a r y form is b a sed , h o w ev e r, on li-th r o u g h scien li-tific sli-tu d ie s.

1S .). R e y c h m a n , P o l a c y w g ó r a c h K a u k a z u d o k o ń c a X I X w . [P o l e s in th e C a u c a s u s till th e e n d o f 19th c e n tu r y ] , „ W i e r c h y " 1954, v o l . 23, p. 19— 58. 13 J. R e y c h m a n , P o d r ó ż n i c y p o l s c y n a B l i s k i m W s c h o d z i e w X I X w . (P o-l is h t r a v e o-l o-le r s in t h e M id d o-l e E as t in 19th c e n t u r y ] , W a r s z a w a 1972. 14 J. R e y c h m a n , M i c k i e w i c z i M i r z a D ż a l a r T o p c z y b a s z y . K a r t k i z d z i e j ó w p o l s k o - a z e r b e j d ż a ń s k i c h z w i ą z k ó w l i l e r a c k i c h [ M ic k ie w i c z a n d D ja fa r M ir za T o p t-c h y b a s h a . A n e p is o d e in th e P o lis h -A z e r b a ija n i li te r a r y r e l a t i o n s h ip s ] , „ Ś w ia t" 1954, N o . 21, p. 19; i d e m , Z a i n t e r e s o w a n i a o r i e n t a l i s t y c z n e w ś r o d o w i s k u m i c k i e w i -c z o w s k i m w W i l n i e i P e t e r s b u r g u [O r ie n ta l is t in t e r e s t s in th e e n v i r o n m e n t o f M i c -k i e w ic z in W i ln o an d P e t e r s b u r g ] , [in :] S z k i c e z d z i e j ó w p o l s k i e j o r i e n t a l i s t y k i , ed . S. S tr e lc y n , v o l. 1, W a r s z a w a 1957, p. 83— 84. 15 J. R e y c h m a n , T a d e u s L a d a - Z a b l o c k i j i A b b a s K u l i - c h a n B a k i c h a n o v , „ A k a - d em i ja N a u k SS R. K r a tk ie S o o b ś ż e n ij a I n s tit u te V o s t o k o v e d e n i j a " 1960, v o l. 38, p . 12— 14,- i d e m , S t o s u n k i l i t e r a c k i e p o l s k o - a z e r b e j d ż a ń s k i e w X I X w i e k u [P o lis h - - A z e r b a ij a n i l ite r a r y r e l a ti o n s in 19th c e n t u r y ], „ P r z e g lą d H u m a n is ty c z n y " 1963, N o . 6, p. 123— 128; i d e m , K i l k a a z e r b e j d ż a ń s k i c h p i o s e n e k l u d o w y c h z a p i s a n y c h p r z e z P o l a k ó w n a Z a k a l k a z i u w p i e r w s z e j p o ł o w i e X I X w i e k u [S om e A z e r b a ija n i fo l k s o n g s w r i tt e n d o w n b y P o le s in T r a n s c a u c a s i a in th e fir st h alf of 19th c e n -t u r y ] , „ P r z e g lą d O r ie n t a li s t y c z n y " 1963, v o l . 22, N o. 2, p. 52— 53. 16 W . K u b a c k i , M a l w y n a K a u k a z i e , [M a ll o w s in t h e C a u c a s u s ] , W a r s z a w a 1969.

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T h e la s t ten y e a r s w itn e sse d a big in c r e a s e in th e n u m b er of s tu -d ies -d ea lin g w ith th e C a u c a sia n p rob lem s. A n im p o rta n t c o n tr ib u tio n h e r e a r e th e w o rk s of A n d rz ej C ho d u bsk i, a n d fir st of all his m o n o -g r a p h a b o u t W ito ld Z -g len ick i p u b lish ed in 198417. H o w e v e r, th e m ain tre n d of th e se stu d ie s h as b e e n co n n e c te d r e c e n t ly w ith th e scien tific o u tp u t of B o hdan B aran ow ski, p ro fe sso r of th e U n iv e rsity of Łódź, w ho in th is w a y e x p re ss e s h is e a r l ie r in te re s t in p ro b lem s of th e O rie n t. A t p r e se n t, his in te re s ts a r e d o m in a te d b y A z e rb a ija n 's pro b lem s. H e h as w r itt e n an o u tlin e of th is c o u n tr y 's h isto ry p r e s e n te d as an in tr o -d u ctio n to th e an th o lo g y of th e A z e r b a ijan i p o e tr y e -d ite -d by T a -d eu sz C h ru ś c ie le w sk i18. N ex t, p ro fe sso r B a ran o w sk i h as p u b lish ed a r e p o r t on th e stu d ie s c a r r ie d o u t in a r e s e a r c h c e n tr e in B aku a n d d e v o ted to th e h isto ry of th e P o lish -A z e rb a ija n i c u lt u ra l r e la tio n s 19. H e h a s also w ritte n a bo ok d ea lin g w ith co n ta cts, w hich w e r e e sta b lish e d b e tw e e n P o lan d a n d th e C a u c a su s in 17th c e n tu r y , w h ic h m ean s w ith th e t e r r i -to r y o cc u p ie d b y th e p r e se n t A z e r b a ija n 20. T h e sa m e sc h o la r h a s also w r itte n an a r tic le on d esc rip tio n s of A z e r b a ija n an d o n th e P olish- -A z erb a ija n i re la tio n s in th e p ast, w h ich w e re p r o v id e d b y M a teu sz G r alew sk i do in g h is p en a l a r m y se rv ic e in th e C a u ca su s ab o u t th e m id-19th c e n tu r y 21. A t th e sa m e tim e, th e r e cam e o u t his b o o k ab o u t th e P o lish A z er b aija n i c u ltu ra l r e la tio n s in th e fir st h alf of 19th c e n tu -r y 22. F in ally , to g e th e -r w ith K -rzy szto f B a-ran o w ski, h e h a s p u b lish e d th e

17 A. C h o d u b s k i , W i t o l d Z g l e n i c k i — „P o l s k i N o b e l " (1850 — 1904), |W it o ld Z g le n ic k i — „ P o lis h N o b e l" (1850— 19 04 )], P ło c k 1984. 18 В. B a r a n o w s k i , S ł o w o w s t ę p n e [F o r e w o r d ], [in:] Z ł o t e k a m i e n i e . D a w n e i n o w e w i e r s z e A z e r b e j d ż a n u [G o ld e n s to n e s . O ld a n d n e w p ocm is of A z e r b a ij a n ] , Ł ód ź 1975, p. 5— 20. 19 B. B a r a n o w s k i , B a d an i a b a k i ń s k i e g o o ś r o d k a n a d p o l s k o - a z e r b e j d ż a ń s k i m i s t o s u n k a m i l i t e r a c k i m i w X I X w . [S t u d i e s of B ak u C e n tr e o n Ih e P o li s h -A z e r b a ija n i L iter a r y R e la tio n s in 19th C e n t u r y ] , „ A c ta U n iv e r s i ta ti s L o d z ie n s is " 1979, s e r . I, N o . 47, p. 137— 144. 20 B. B a r a n o v s k i j , K a v k a z i Pol' Sa v X V I I v . , [in :] R o s s i j a , P o l' ś a i Pr i- c e r n o m o r ' e v X V — X V I I I w . , ed . B. A . R y b a k o v , M o s k v a 1979, p. 248— 262. В. B a r a n o w s k i , A z e r b e j d ż a ń s k i e r e l a c j e c h ł o p s k i e g o s y n a z ł ę c z y c k i e g o M a z e w a ( „ K a u k a z " M a t e u s z a G r a l e w s k i e g o ) [A z e r b a ij a n i R e la t io n s of a P e a s a n t S on fro m M a z e w in L e c z y c a D is tr ic t („ C a u c a su s" of M a te u s z G r a le w s k i) ] , „ A ota U n i v e r -s i ta t i-s L o d z ie n -s i-s " 1979, -s er . I, N o . 52, p. 3— 15. 22 B. B a r a n o w s k i , P o ł s k o - a z e r b e j d ż a ń s k i e s t o s u n k i k u l t u r a l n e w p i e r w s z e j p o ł o w i e X I X w i e k u [ P o li s h - A z e r b a ija n i C u ltu r a l R e la tio n s in th e F irs t H alf of 19th

C e n t u r y ], Ł ód ź 1979,- i d o m , „W s o ł d a t y n a K a u k a z " . P o ł o ż e n i e p o l s k i c h d z i a ł a c z y p o l i t y c z n y c h w y s ł a n y c h k a r n i e d o s ł u ż b y w o j s k o w e j n a K a u k a z i e w d r u g i m t r z y -d z i e s t o l e c i u X I X w . [„ C o m p u ls o r y a rm y s e r v i c e in th e C au c a s u s " . S i tu a t io n o f P o li s h p o li ti c a l a c t i v i s t s s e n t to p e n a l arm y s e r v i c e in th e C a u c a s u s in m id 1 9th c e n -t u r y ] , „ A n n a le s U n iv e r s i -ta -ti s M a r ia e C u r i e -S k ło d o w s k a " 1982, s e c . F, v o l . 37, N o . 15, p. 27 9— 295.

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b o o k e n title d P o l a k ó w k a u k a s k i e drogi (C a u c asian r o u te s of P o le s)28 co v e rin g th e tim e p e r io d fro m th e m id-15th c e n tu r y till th e p r e s e n t tim es. T h is b o o k w r itte n in a p o p u la r form an d p u b lish e d in a big n u m -b e r of co p ies w ill u n d o u -b te d ly p la y a g r e a t ro le in p o p u la rizin g th e h isto ry of P o la n d 's v a r io u s c o n ta c ts w ith th e p eo p le s of th e C au casus. T he n ex t m ajo r u n d e rta k in g of p ro fe sso r B ara n o w sk i in th is field is

Historia A z e r b e jd ża n u (The h is to ry of A z e rb aija n ) b ein g in p rin t now.

O f g r e a t im p o rta n c e for th e fu tu re of th e p ro b le m s d iscu ssed h e re a r e c e r ta in m ea su re s of th e o r g a n iz a tio n a l n a tu re . It is w o rth n o tin g h e r e th a t o n th e in itia tiv e of p ro fe sso r B ara n o w sk i t h e r e h as b ee n s et u p a t th e U n iv e r sity of Łódź I n ter d is c ip lin a ry R ese arc h U n it fo r P o lish - -T ra n sc a u c a sian R e se arch . T h e tas k of th is u n it is to c o -o rd in a te d iffe-r e n t iffe-re s e a iffe-rc h e s on p iffe-ro b lem s of T iffe-r a n sc a u c a sia n c o u n tiffe-ries, o iffe-rg a n iz e th e P o lish -T ra n sc a u c a sia n c o - o p e ra tio n a n d p o p u la riz e th e se p ro b lem s in Łódź e n v ir o n m e n t. T h e u n it e d its its jo u r n a l ,,F o lia c a u c a sic a " p u b lish e d b y Łódź U n iv e r sity P ress. D e p a rt m e n t o f A u x ili a r y S c ie n c e s of H is to r y , I n s tit u te o f H is to r y , U n iv e r s it y of Ł ód ź J u l i an K a r o l J a n c z a k S T A N 1 PO T R Z E B Y P OL SK IC H B A D A N N A D H IS T O R IĄ A Z E R B E JD Ż A N U P o ls k ie z a in t e r e s o w a n i a A z e r b e jd ż a n e m są c z ę ś c i ą k o n ta k tó w z k r a ja m i i n a -r od a m i k a u k a s k im i. Ic h p o c z ą te k s ię g a d -r u g ie j p o ł o w y X V w ., k i e d y na d w ó -r K a-z im ie r a-z a J a g i e l l o ń c a-z y k a p r a-z y b y ło p o s e l s tw o U a-z u n H a s a n a , w ł a d c y p a ń s tw a B ia łe g o B a ra na z e s t o l i c ą w T e b r iz ie , o b e jm u j ą c e g o m. in . z n a c z n ą c z ę ś ć K a u k az u . S ta r a n ia p o s ł ó w o z a w a r c i e k o a l ic j i a n t y t u r o c k ie j z o s t a ły o p is a n e p rz e z Ja n a D łu g o s z a . W n a s tę p n y c h w i e k a c h w ia d o m o ś c i o k r a ja c h Z a k a u k a z ia d o c i e r a ł y d o P o ls k i za p o ś r e d n ic tw e m k u p c ó w b ąd ź z a k o n n i k ó w p o l s k i c h d z i a ła ją c y c h w m is ja c h k a to -l ic k ic h w p a ń s tw ie S a fa w id ó w . S p o ś r ó d ty c h z a k o n n ik ó w n a jb a r d z ie j z n a n y j e s t T a- d tn is z K r u s iń s k i, p r z e b y w a j ą c y na ta m ty m o b s z a r z e w p ie r w s z e j ć w ie r c i X V II I w . Po p o w r o c ie d o k r aju n a p is a ł o n k ilk a o b s z e r n y c h d z ie ł, k tó r y c h fr a g m e n t y lu b p r z e r ó h k i b y ł y w i e lo k r o t n ie w y d a w a n e w r ó ż n y c h k r a j a c h , b ę d ą c p r z ez w i e l e lat w a ż n y m ź r ó d łe m w ia d o m o ś c i o tyra r e g io n ie B li s k ie g o W s c h o d u .

W p ie r w s z e j p o ło w i e X I X w . p r ze z k r a je K au k a zu p r z e w in ę ło s i ę k ilk a d z ie s ią t t y s i ę c y P o la k ó w . K a u k a z b y ł b o w ie m w t e d y g łó w n y m r e g io n e m , d o k ą d w y s y ł a n o w c i e l o n y c h d o a rm ii r o s y js k ie j j e ń c ó w w o je n n y c h p o p r z e g r a n y c h k a m p a n ia c h , m ło d y c h m ę ż c z y z n w z i ę t y c h d o w o j s k a w d r o d z e c o r o c z n e g o p o b o ru o ra z a r e s z t o w a

-23 B. B a r a n o w s k i , K. B a r a n o w s k i , P o l a k ó w k a u k a s k i e d r o g i [C a u c a s ia n

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n y c h za d z ia ł a l n o ś ć w k o n s p ir a c y j n y c h o r g a n iz a c ja c h i s k a z a n y c h na o d h y c io w r e -jo n ie K a u k azu w ie lo l e t n ie j s ł u ż b y w o js k o w e j . W ś r ó d d z i a ła c z y p o li ty c z n y c h b y ł o w i e l u lu d z i w y k s z t a ł c o n y c h , k tó r z y d z ię k i o s o b i s ty m z a s ł u g o m a w a n s o w a li d o s to p n i o fi c e r s k i c h . Z d ar z ało s i ę c z ę s to , ż e p ię k n y k r ajo b r a z , c a łk ie m o d m ie n n e w ie r z e n i a i o b y c z a j e ta m ty c h n a r o d ó w w y w o ł y w a ł y u P o la k ó w ż y w e z a in t e r e s o w a n ie , a c z a -s e m i -s y m p a tię , W r e z u lt a c ie p o w -s t a w a ł y l ic z n e w -s p o m n ie n ia , r e p o r ta ż e i o p i -s y z a w ie r a j ą c e w i e l o c e n n e g o m a te r ia łu d o t y c z ą c e g o n a jr o z m a it s z y c h d z ie d z in . P o d o b n ie ja k w p r z y p a d k u p ra c K r u s iń s k ie g o , d o t y c z y ł y o n e n a o g ó ł k il k u k r a jó w , w k tó -r y c h k o le j n o ich a u to -r z y o d b y w a l i s łu ż b ę , c h o c i a ż w -r ó ż n y m s to p n iu . A z e r b e jd ż a n o w i d u ż o m ie js c a p o ś w i ę c il i w s w y c h w s p o m n i e n ia c h i r e la c ja c h z e s ł a n i d o s ł u ż b y w o js k o w e j H ip o l it J a w o r s k i, K a z im ie r z Ł ap cz yń s ik i, M ic h a ł B u to w t- -A n d r z e j k o w ic z , M a te u s z G r a le w s k i i W ła d y s ł a w S tr z e li ń s k i. O A z e r b e j d ż a n ie p isa ł te ż J u li u s z S tr u ty ń s k i , o f ic e r w c a r s k i e j s łu ż b ie i A le k s a n d e r C h o d ź k o , o r ie n t a l is t a , p e ł n ią c y p r z e z ja k i ś czais o b o w ią z k i tłu m a c z a w k o n s u l a c ie r o s y js k im w T o b riz ie . P o la k ó w in te r e s o w a ła p r z e s z ło ś ć k raju , o p i s y w a li z a b y t k i a r c h i te k tu r y , w a r u n k i n a-tu r a l n e , m ia s ta , s t o s u n k i s p o łe c z n e i g o s p o d a r c z e ó w c z e s n e g o A z e r b e jd ż a n u . Z n a jw ię k s z ą u jw a g ą o p i s y jw a li t e ż m ie s z k a ń c ó jw k r a ju , ic h m e n t a l n o ś ć , jw ie r z e n ia , l e g e n -d y i z w y c z a j e lu -d o w e , z w ł a s z c z a z w ią z a n e z w ie r z e n i a m i m u z u łm a ń s k im i, p i e ś n i r e lig i jn e i u r o c z y s to ś c i w e s e l n e , c z y l i fo lk l o r a z e r b o jd ż a ń s k ic h w s i i m ia s te c z e k . N i e k t ó r z y s p o ś r ó d t y c h P o la k ó w b y li o b d a r z e n i t a le n te m li te r a c k im . T w o r z y li w i ę c d z ie ła p o e ty c k ie , o p o w i a d a n ia i p o w ie ś c i o s n u te n a r e a l ia c h k u ltu r o w y c h ó w c z e -s n e g o A z e r b e jd ż a n u , ja k o p o w i e ś ć o G i u l-S z a d z ic , n a p is a n a p r z e z J u l iu s z a S tr u - t y ń s k i e g o c z y M a h m u d e k W ła d y s ła w a S tr z e liń s k i e g o . Z w ią z k i l i te r a c k ie p o ls k o - - a z e r b e jd ż a ń s k ie z a p o c z ą t k o w a ł w c z e ś n ie j L u d w ik W ł a d y s ł a w S p it z n a g e l , k tó r y p od w p ły w e m w y b it n e g o A z e r b e jd ż a n i n a M ir z y D ż afa ra T o p c z y b a s z y , p r o fe s o r a j ę z y k ó w w s c h o d n i c h w P e te r s b u r g u , p r z e ł o ż y ł n a j ę z y k fr a n c u s k i fr a g m e n t p o e m a tu I s k a n d e r N a m e N iz a m ie g o z G an d ż y. W d r u g ie j p o ł o w i e X I X w . o b o k P o la k ó w o d b y w a ją c y c h s łu ż b ę w o j s k o w ą , k tó r z y n a d a l li c z e b n ie p r z e w a ż a li, d o G ru z ji i A z e r b e jd ż a n u p r z y b y w a ło w ie lu n a s z y c h r o -d a k ó w z m o ty w ó w o s o b i s ty c h i z a w o -d o w y c h . N a j w ię k s z y r o z g ł o s o s i ą g n ą ł w ś r ó -d n ic h W i to ld Z g le n ic k i, in ż y n i e r i g e o lo g , b ar d zo z a s łu ż o n y d la r o z w o j u a z e r b e j- d ż a ń s k i e g o p r z e m y s łu n a f to w e g o . Z a p is e m c z ę ś c i d o c h o d ó w z d z ia ł e k n a ft o w y c h n a r z e c z K a s y im . M i a n o w s k i e g o z y s k a ł s o b ie z a s z c z y t n e m ia n o „ P o ls k i e g o N ob la " . O d d r u g ie j p o ło w y X I X w . p r o b le m a t y k a k r a j ó w Z a k a u k a z ia , w t y m A z e r b e jd ż a n u , s t a ł a s i ę p r z e jd m io te m b a jd a ń h i s to r y k ó w i o r ie n t a lis t ó w z a jm u ją c y c h s i ę jd z i e ja m i m i s ji k a to l ic k i c h n a w s c h o d z ie i s to s u n k a m i p o l s k o p e r s k im i. N a l e ż y tu w y m ie n ić p r a c e A n t o n i e g o M u c h liń s ik ie g o , S t a n is ła w a Z a ł ę s k ie g o , J a n a S y g a ń s k i e g o , T a -d e u s z a K o w a l s k i e g o , S ta n is ł a w a B r z e z iń s k ie g o , B o le s ł a w a S ta c h o n i a i in n y c h . W o k r e s ie m ię d z y w o je n n y m i p o II w o j n ie ś w ia t o w e j w i e l e p r a c n a p i s a ł n a te n te m a t J a n R e y c h m a n . D o t y c z y ł y o n e p r z e d e w s z y s tk i m z w ią z k ó w l it e r a c k ic h p o i s k o - - a z e r b e jd ż a ń s k i c h o r a z t w ó r c z o ś c i i l o s ó w P o la k ó w , k tó r z y z r ó ż n y c h p o w o d ó w z n a l e ź l i s ię na ta m ty m o b s z ar z e . W o s t a t n i c h l a t a c h s p r a w o m p o l s k o - k a u k a s k im p o ś w i ę c a w i e l e u w a g i p r o fe s o r B o h d a n B a r a n o w s k i, k tó r y w t e n s p o s ó b d a je n o w y w y r a z s w y m w c z e ś n i e j s z y m z a in t e r e s o w a n io m s p r a w a m i O r ie n tu . W s p ó łp r a c u j e o n z o ś r o d k a m i n a u k o w y m i w A z e r b e jd ż a n i e i w in n y c h k r a j a c h Z a k a u k a z ia , n a d a j ą c te j w s p ó ł p r a c y n a g ru n -c i e łó d z k im fo r m y o r g a n i z a -c y jn e . W r e z u lt a -c ie p o w s t a ło w i e l e p ra -c, k tó r e u k a z u ją d łu g ą t r a d y c ję w s p ó łp r a c y P o ls k i z ty m r e g io n e m , u k a z u ją w k ła d P o la k ó w w r o z w ó j r ó ż n y c h d z ie d z i n ż y c i a t e g o k ra ju , a p r z e d e w s z y s t k i m u ja w n i a ją ź r ó d ło w ą w a r t o ś ć ś w ia d e c tw p o ls k ic h d la w z b o g a c e n ia w ie d z y o p r z e s z ło ś c i i s to s u n k a c h w d z i e -w i ę t n a s t o -w i e c z n y m A z e r b e jd ż a n i e .

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