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Fog water chemical composition in different regions of Poland

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Żaneta Polkowska1) , Marek Błaś2) , Kamila Skarżyńska1)

Mieczysław Sobik2) , Krzysztof Nowiński3) , Jacek Namieśnik1)

1)

1) DepartmentDepartmentofAnalyticalChemistry, ChemicalFaculty, Gdańsk UniwersityofTechnology

2)

2)DepartmentDepartmentofofMeteorologyMeteorologyandandClimatology, WrocClimatology, Wrocłław aw UniversityUniversity

3)3)DepartmentDepartmentofofLakelandLakelandGeographyGeography, , InstituteInstituteofofGeography, Geography, UniversityUniversityofofGdaGdańńsksk

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

The observed fog frequency in Poland

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3

Mt. Szrenica 1330 m a.s.l.

Borucino 186 m a.s.l.

Zakopane 911 m a.s.l.

Location of the sampling sites

1

2 3

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Fog water chemical composition

in different geographic regions of Poland

BORUCINO ZAKOPANE Mt. SZRENICA

lowland mountain basin mountain top

TIC

[meq* l-1]

3.53 2.73 liquid 1.10

solid 1.05

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0%

10%

20%

30%

0%

10%

20%

30%

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Fog water chemical composition

in different geographic regions of Poland

BORUCINO ZAKOPANE Mt. SZRENICA

lowland mountain basin mountain top

Ca2+ Ca2+ Ca2+

NH4+ NH4+

NH4+

H+ H+

H+

Na+ Na+

Na+

Cl-

Cl- Cl-

SO42- SO42- SO42-

NO3- NO3-

NO3-

F- F- F-

0%

10%

20%

30%

TIC

[meq* l-1]

3.53 2.73 liquid 1.10

solid 1.05

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Long-term volume weighted pH values of precipitation and fog at the Szrenica Mt.

3,50 3,75 4,00 4,25 4,50

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

pH

precipitation fog

reduction ofpollutant emission from power stations

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Long-term volume weighted pH values of precipitation and fog at the Szrenica Mt.

3,50 3,75 4,00 4,25 4,50

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

pH

precipitation fog

reduction ofpollutant emission from power stations

SO42- H+

31%

15%

17%

8%

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

[meq* l-1]

TIC in fog samples (A) and relative contribution in TIC deposition (B) at the Szrenica Mt. in relation to circulation pattern

0,0 0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5

N

NNE NE

ENE

E

ESE

SE SSE S

SSW SW WSW

W WNW

NW NNW

[%]

A) B)

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

[meq* l-1]

TIC in fog samples (A) and relative contribution in TIC deposition (B) at the Szrenica Mt. in relation to circulation pattern

0,0 0,3 0,6 0,9 1,2 1,5

N

NNE NE

ENE

E

ESE

SE SSE S

SSW SW WSW

W WNW

NW NNW

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

N

NNE NE

ENE

E

ESE

SE SSE S

SSW SW WSW

W WNW

NW

NNW

[%]

A) B)

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0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5

A PM A PM PC

TIC [meq*l-1 ]

0%

25%

50%

75%

D [%]

TIC D

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

FRESH TRANSFORMED

TIC and total pollutant deposition (D) via fog at the Szrenica Mt.

in relation to the type and age of air mass

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0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5

A PM A PM PC

TIC [meq*l-1 ]

0%

25%

50%

75%

D [%]

TIC D

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

FRESH TRANSFORMED

TIC and total pollutant deposition (D) via fog at the Szrenica Mt.

in relation to the type and age of air mass

7.2% 2.7% 12.2% 8.9% 15.6%

H+

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Comparision of water flux (WF), TIC and atmospheric pollutant deposition (D) between lowland and mountainous part of Poland

lowland mountains

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

rain fog

WF [mm]; D [meq*m-2 *y-1 ]

0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5

TIC [meq*l-1 ]

WF D TIC

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Comparision of water flux (WF), TIC and atmospheric pollutant deposition (D) between lowland and mountainous part of Poland

lowland mountains

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

rain fog

WF [mm]; D [meq*m-2 *y-1 ]

0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5

TIC [meq*l-1 ]

WF D TIC

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

rain fog

WF [mm]; D [meq*m-2 *y-1 ]

0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5

TIC [meq*l-1 ]

WF D TIC

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altitude;

concavity/convexity index;

exposure/screening index (position of a aaparticular site in relation to local and aaregional morphology);

slope inclination and aspect;

landuse (vegetation).

Factors which potentially control intensity of water flux

and pollutant depostion from fog

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

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exposure/screening index aa(NW sector within 20 km aadistance)

concavity/convexity index

aa(15 km radius of a aacircle);

slope inclination;

20 km

Crucial terrain parameters

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

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exposure/screening index aa(NW sector within 20 km aadistance)

concavity/convexity index

aa(15 km radius of a aacircle);

slope inclination;

20 km

Crucial terrain parameters

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

15 km

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exposure/screening index aa(NW sector within 20 km aadistance)

concavity/convexity index

aa(15 km radius of a aacircle);

slope inclination;

20 km

Crucial terrain parameters

21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

> 400 m

> 150 m

15 km

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Where fog potentially is the main medium of pollutant deposition?

0 50

500

0 50

500

1000

1000 1000

Western Sudety Mts.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

500

0 50

500

1000

1000 1000

Where is it really? In the forest.

Western Sudety Mts.

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Stóg Izerski, Izera Mts., Poland (2004) 1100 m a.s.l.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

500

0 50

500

1000

1000 1000

Where is it really? In the forest.

Western Sudety Mts.

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Sine Skałki, Izera Mts., Poland (2005) 1100 m a.s.l.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

500

0 50

500

1000

1000 1000

Where is it really? In the forest.

Western Sudety Mts.

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Szrenica, Karkonosze Mts., Poland (2001) 1150 m a.s.l.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

0 50 500

1000

1000

00 10

500

500 500

Areas with potentailly higher fog importance in the Eastern Sudety Mts.

Eastern Sudety Mts.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

0 50 500

1000

1000

00 10

500

500 500

Real fog importance in the Eastern Sudety Mts.

Eastern Sudety Mts.

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Medvĕdi Vrch, Hruby Jesnik, Czech Republic (2007) 1216 m a.s.l.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

0 50 500

1000

1000

00 10

500

500 500

Real fog importance in the Eastern Sudety Mts.

Eastern Sudety Mts.

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Średniak, Śnieżnik Massif, Poland (2006) 1210 m a.s.l.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

0 50 500

1000

1000

00 10

500

500 500

Real fog importance in the Eastern Sudety Mts.

Eastern Sudety Mts.

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Szczeliniec Wielki, Table Mts., Poland (2007) 900 m a.s.l.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile 0 50

1000 1000

1000 1500

1500 0 150

1000 1000

Areas with potentailly higher fog importance in the Tatra Mts.

Tatra Mts.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Real fog importance in the Eastern Sudety Mts.

Tatra Mts.

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Tatra Mts., Poland (2007) 2100 m a.s.l.

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21-27 July2007, La Serena, Chile

Conclusions:

1. Radiation fog is much more polluted (than advective fog) due to the much lower LWC and heavier influence of antropogenic emission;

2. Maximum TIC values observed in the transformed old air masses are caused by low rate of pollutant removal through scarce precipitation rather than by large emission along their trajectory;

3. At numerous conspicuous convex landforms, where fog is an important path of deposition, forest decline is still clearly visible.

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