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Late Tertiary alluvial gravels of the Korytnica Basin (Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland)


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geologlca polonica

Vol. 37, No. 3-4 Warszawa 1987


Late Tertiary alluvial gravels of

the Korytnica Basin (Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland)

ABSTRACT: Origin of the gravels overlying the Korytnica Clays and- exposed iIn the <:entral part of the KorytIlli'ca Basiin (Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland) is discussed and reinterpreted. _ Clastic material o~ these gravels was' delivered by a river from the waste of Mesozoic rocks and older Miocene deposits remained after the Middle Mdocene regres&on. The gravel Uthosomeis regarded as an ero- sional outlier 0If a greater alluvial fan depoSlited dw:ing a relatively _ longer llpan' Of time since the regressit>n of the Middle Miocene sea (UPPel' BadeIllian or Lo-

wer Sarmatiacn.) till the preglacial part of the Pleistocene.


This paper presents a reinterpretation of the nature of gravels expo- sed between the villages Choment6w and Karsy (see Text-figs 1-':'2) within the Korytnica Basin, being a small part of the Korytnica Bay developed during the Middle Miocene (Badenian) trangression onto the southern slopes of the Holy Cross MountainS, Central Poland (see RAD- WANSKI 1969; BALUK & RADWANSKI 1977, 1979, 1984; SZYMANKO

& WOJCIK 1982). The origin of these gravels has previously been dis-

cussed by many authors (KOW ALEWSKI -1930, RADWANSKI 1969, RUTKOWSKI 1976, SZYMANKO & WOJC~K 1982, GUTOWSKI 1983) but still remained unclear. A complicated genlogical situation and a lack of good e",!>osures showing relations between the' several Middle Mioce..;

ne (Badenian) members and the overlyIng gravels cause that these se- diments should be studied in a context of facies develo.pment in a re- gional sc_ale. The geotectonic control of seqimentary processes close to the Holy Cross shores can be a base of suc~ consideration. Simultaneo.- usly, a detailed sedimentological analysis of the gravels is an important-_ paleogeographical and environmental indicator.




.. , ... '


o I


Fig. I., Extent of the Middle Miocene (Badenian) deposits in the Fore-Carpatbian Depression (stippled); arrowed is the Korytnica Basin (after RADWANSKI 1977b)


The investig~ted gravels form a 3 km long and l:-5m, thick l,itho- some iniheeen-tral,pal"tof the K~ytnicaBfl:sin (~e_ T_e~t~fi:g,2and


1"':"-2) and are composed mostly of Jurassic limestone pebbles



Badenian rhodoid detritus. The Jurassic pebbles greater than IDem in , diameter, bored by diverse, rock-borers, are rare in that loose sediment, particularly as exposed near Karsy (see Pt 2). Clasti'c material is quite well sorted and rounded. Granulometric analysis (Text-fig. 3) shows a noticeable contribution of quartz material and pieces of flints and di- verse clastic rocks. Among these, one can recognize marly sandStones, -most probably of Badenian age (cf. GUTOWSKI 1984), sandstones with glauconite and conglomerates similar, to those of AlbianjCenomanian age exposed , near Staniewice and Korytnica(cf. HAKENBERG 1969).

All Badenian organic remains, mainly' rhodoids, fragments of calcitic . 'shells of oysters and scallops, a~e very destroyed and, undoubtedly,' they were transported before deposition for a relatively long'distance.Only'

·foraminifers, i. e. anomalinids ande1phidiids, are recognizable among

microfaunal elements. ..

A small spot of loose gravels, found 1.5 km SE frOm Karsy" interfin- gers with well cemented conglomerates and sandstonesof identical


trographic composition, in which such sedimentary structures as hori- zontal' and cross laminatio~ have been recorded. Observations 'over the croplandand' geophysical data (SZYMANKO & WOJCIK 1982) iridicate tha.t the gravels overlie -discordantly all the members of the Badenian sequence, i. e. marly sands (at Jawor and Choment6w) or the Korytnica Clays (at Karsy and Jawor;see'Text-fig. 2Band PI. 1,' Figs 1---2). The







~---..:---:...---:.- c ::.,--- - - - -.

Fig. 2


... :::::::::: s



· · ··



~c ~

o 0.5 km



A - Geological sketch-map of the Korytnica Basin (from GUTOWSKI 1984) ' ..

J - Jura;sic substrate .. ~ - Korytnica Clays. • - marly sands: I - red2algal limestones. b - 'Sandy red-algal deposits with bentonites.

. Pleistocene glacial deposits and Holocene are. blank .

B - Idealized cross-section through the central part of the Korytnica Basin, to show rehitiOti of the tate Tertiary alluvial gravels to the Middie Miocene (Badenian) sequence; lithology

.' the same llS in th~map



Pleistocene deposits, identified due to their content of Scandinavian

~rraticmaterial, cover the discussed . gravels, particularly near Karsy (Text-fig. 2A and PI. 1, Figs 1-2).


Since the investigations carried out by KOWALEWSKI (1930), the gravels were referred to as of Sarmatian age because of their lithologic similarity topsefitic deposits called the "detrital Sarmatian" lying along the southern margin of the Holy CroSs Mountail}S (cf. RUTKOWSKI 1976). By' turn, the complex study of littoral structures developed du- ring the Middle Miocene (Badenian) transgression (RADWANSKI 1969) allowed to postulate that the gravels originated from abrasion of the hypothethical Jawor Ridge which isolated the Korytnica Basin from the open sea. The presence. of such a. barrier resulted in specific conditions . prevailing during sedimentation of the Korytnica Clays and in the de- . velopmentof an unique organic world within the basin (RAOWANSKI

1969; BALUK & RADWANSKI 1977, 1979, 1984). '

However, ge<l!physical data showed., a lack of any ridge of the Jura- ssic basement which could !>eparate the Korytnica Basin from the rest of the Korytnica Bay (SZYMANKO & WOJCIK 1982). According to the latter statement, the gravelS occurring near Jawor have been treated as the sediment of the same age as the red-algal limestones from Chomen- t6w (cf. RADWA:NSKI 1977a), and resulting frQm a hydrodynamic trans- port of clastic ~aterial from adjacent littoral zones. It was also suppo-

~ed that the isolation


the Korytnica Basin was only of hydrodynamic

~ature, stressed' by the tendency. to lowering the bottom in the central part of the basin {SZYMANKO & WOJCIK 1982).

The authoT, basing on . his recent investigations, suggests. an~her concept of

th~ gi:~vel origi'n. In fact, this problem would be reso~ved if one can answ~ the :l!Qllo'Wing questions: (i) where the gravel material or:il1Jinated from, (U) how to characterize its depoSitiooal' erwironment, aIIld (iii) what ;is the age of these gravels.


A lack of any hypothethical ridge in the Jurassic basement makes ' the gravelS unusual in comparison with the deposits resulting from abra- sion of the .. rocky shores situated. along the Korytnica Basin (localities I, II, Ill, IV at Korytnica and I,. II at Choment6w. see RADWANSKI 1969, and locality VI near Karsy see GUTOWSKI &MACHALSKI 1984).

Single C()lbbles and pebbles could halVe been rolled off the abrasion zo- nes to the' central part of the basin during sedimentation of marly sands



and red-algal limestones (see RADWANSKI 1977a, GUTOWSKI 1984, GUTOWSKI & MACHALSKI 1984). Such a fact can be explained by a temporary storm activity. However, so great accumulation of psefitic material in the center of the basin gives an evidence orf exceptionally high hydrodynamic conditions. Large cobbles and pebbles of local ba-

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 0.5 025 0.125 mm

Fig. 3. Petrographic composition of the Late Tertiary ailuvial gravels

I-limestones of Upper Jurassic (a) and other (b) age; 2-calcitic shell remains of Badenian age; 3-red-algal detritus of Badenian age; 4 - unrecognizable carbonate material; 5 - sandstones. commonly with glauconite. and conglomerates (AlbianjCenomanian). as· well as marly sandstones (Badenian); 6 - grey-blackish flints (mostly Upper Jurassic); 7 - other

flints, silty rocks and vein quartz; 8 - quartz grains



sement,deii.sely bored by various rock-borers, ate in all mentioned li- ttoral loca.iities inher'ent in the'Korytnica Clays;' oyster shellbedor red- -algal limestone. The borings·, there are very wen, preserv·ed and often include them6uldsoftheir 'bhralve producers (RADWANSKI1969, BA..;

t.UK & 'RAOWANSKI 1977, GUTOWSKl- &',MACHALSKI 1984). On the other hand, the discussed gravels are relatively well sorted. The bored pebbles are here rather rare and the borings are always strongly abraded . . . . ,;"

A significant content of the gravels is taken by quartz material, flints and sandstones (Text-fig. 3), whereas theMesozoi~ ,substrate of the Korytnica Basin consists of limestone members ofwppermoStOxfordian and Kimmeridgian age (cf. KUTEK 1968). SOIine,of 'gray-blacltish flints mig1;J.t originate from the "banded limestones'" member. (see KUTEK 1962, 1968), the nearest exposure of whiCh

, is

situated NW from Niziny (see Text-fig. 4). However, proportfon9f' ,such resistant compone~ts' as flints and quartz to the limestone, pie~es in several fractions ihdicates ) . " .

relativ~ly long tra~ort and/or sorting" Moreover, sandstones With glau- cQnite and conglomerates of Albian/Cenomanian age ,are recognizable

~o:ngthe~rook pieces and some of white and pirik flintS al'e dissimilar toahy 'Of those known from the Vpper Jurassic subStrafe. Fragments of the :marly s~ndstones were deli~eredfrom the Badenian sedimentary sequence, the same as the pebbles Oovergrown by coralline red algae (cf.

RADW.ANSKl 19.6 9 ) . "' - . . . '

> An th~abQye,,> presented factSs~gigestan

alloclithonous nature



grav'els and, on the other hand,aconclusiori that they are younger than all ~he Badenian members Oof the Korytnica Basin. A supposed alimenta- ry ~reaof the terrigenous materiarwaSloc~ted in.aNeogenevalley (see LINDNER 1977, Text-fig. 7) running frOom, the zone built up of the Keu- per clays/ through dislocate


zones' of the Malogoszcz r'egion ~o suibse;

quent denivelation composedot uhre~~tant Albiah and Cenomanian fi..;.

ne-~las~ic roclts (cf. HAKENBERG.;1;969)

, and,

eventually; to the axial part .. of the Sob~6wantidine;' :which'wns~ts' ofthe ,Upper Jurassic ..


mestones (KUTE~ 1968). The,ciastic matetial'cc>uld have beentransp6r ..

1ted::thisway' from the wasUe :oj , the .. Mesozoic clastic rooks by a river


the pre-Wierna River (LINDNER 1977).

Deposition of the gravel material expresses an intensification of er~

sion arid' traiuq>ortafter sedimentation of the Korytmca Clays and mar- ly;'sancIS in. the Korytnica Basin .. (cif. :6ADWAl'iSKI1969,' BAt.UK' &

RADWANSKI 1977, GUTOWSKI 1984)~ If one looks for a process res-



ponsible for a large-scale erosion and 'transpor~ to the south in the Mio- cene history 'of the Holy Cross Mountains one 'must· consider the facies interrelation'between the gravels of the Korytnica Basin and the depo- sits called the .. detrital Sarmatian" (ef. RADWANSKI 1973, ,RUTKOW-,

SKI ' 1976),' The latter sedimenIt:s Originated as


result of an intense

iSOIStatk uplift of the' Holy Cross area eompensed by a lowering of, the Carpathian Foredeep (cf. KUTEK & GLAZEK1972, RADWANSKI1973) and created a large accumulation: platform along theoffshores of the regressing sea (RADWANSKI 1973). Older Miocenesediments, remained in an emerged zone; were reworkedandredeposited to the. south. This caused a,' presence 'of' red..;algaI 'material, mixed organic elements and pebbles bored by rock-borers within that sedimentary complex. That episode is 'e~pressed in the:forela:nd of KorytnicaBay by the: sedimenta-

l"x', .



. , , .,.,

3 . ~:., .. ;,


, ~CH~:!NTO~




; ... : ... ,.

: ,,~ .... .-'

G -, ...

'yZ ' ... '~~~~~~~3

' ~. JA'W~: I?

t---"~""*"'.~ . . /.--- ... _ ,.:"sI:


~ _ _ _ KORYTNIC~~ .... 'LiPA / - ... ""~==t

...., 'I. OC~\ .~


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ '_""",...:l ...


I ,.,-,,/ b. ,,' ,

I-________ --.::~~~ '- ;J:{0SlCZOWICESULlSlOW


_ _

~~'\.~~===.~~' ,.i.: ' '''<c. . . CL(

t - - - ; - - - , - - - - ' -"-'

_---,-:-GOR~ ~~\

. _ c~ ..

~----,---,---,~ .- --;-; , ,,--~-,--~---::; r:.

r . . ( : :-:-: : : : : : : :


: : : : : ' • --: : : : : - • • -:

'VZ.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.: ... :.:.:.:.:.: ....

KIJE . . . . . . . . . . . • •

Fig. 4. Geological sketch-map of th,e ~orytnica Bay

Pre-MiOcene substrate: I'~ Paleozoic. 2·':" Triassic'; j,- jurassic. 4 - Cretaceous

Middle Mipcene:(B~enian): transgressive stage, deppsits with 'preserved littoral, strl,lctures.

(black SP(}t~J; regressive .stag~:; _ localities ot the, sediments ~th beqtonites (black triangles) and, their extent' (dashed line), daYs originated uriiier higher 'salinity conditions (white

c_'.,:" triangle) and their extenf (spotted line) " .

Late- Tertiary alluVial .. gnivels . are· stippled; . arrowed ,is the direction of their: transpbrt



tion of gravels, often cross':'bedded, and sands yielding specific fanual elements.· The ecology of 'benthic, bivalve-dominated communities indi- cates lower salinity conditions there (STUDENCKA & STUDENCKI 1980). Recently, a model of barier shore sedimentation is postulated for the latter deposits' (CZAPOWSKI 1984). Paleogeographical setting of the Korytnica Basin needs, however, a· detailed discussion.

The Korytm-ca Bay was developed in a subsequent, long and relati- vely narrow pre-Miocene valley between the rocky Jurassic ridges (RADWANSKI 1969, BALUK & RADWANSKI 1977). During the Ba- denian transgression that valley was .covered by'shallow water (depth


0-20 m) in which red-algal and/or sandy deposits (ten to twenty meters thick) were deposited. More thick sediments, mainly clays, were accumulated in somewhat dE;'!eper conditions (down to about 60 m) only in small denivelations like the Korytnica Basin and another one in the




' . ' -" " .,'


1 -_--:



Fig. 5

Profiles of the Middle Miocene (Badenian) deposits with bentonites (black) Locality LIPA: 1 - Korytnica Clays, 2 - marly sands and sandstones, 3 - red-algal


Locality G6RKI: 6 - marly clays and mads, 7 - sandy roads and sandstones Assignations as in ALEXANDROWICZ'

(1979, Text-fig, 3)

vicinity of Sulisz6w (ef. KOWALEWSKI 1927, 1930; RADWANSKI 1969;

SZYMANKO & WOJCIK 1982). A comparison of thickness and lateral extent of the deposits with bentonites, originated ofter the sedimenta- tion


the Korytnica Clays and overlying marly sands and red-algal limestones, shows a well-marked regularity. (see Text-figs 4-5): Two



bentonite members can be jtreated as good ~ey horizOll1S correlataible with two tuffogenic units recognized in O'ther localities along the SW margin of the Holy Cross Mountains (ALEXANDROWICZ & PARA- CHONIAK 1956, FIJALKOWSKA & FIJALKOWSKI 1966). The youn- gest Miocene sediments in the Korytnica Bay, i. e. c1aysknown from the boreholes Wloszczowice and Suliszow, correspond to those represen- ting a period of an increasing salin~ty just below the Gypsum Member in the Polaniec depression (see RADWANSKI 1969, ALEXANDROWICZ 1979).

The presented space relationships between several Badenian mem- bers could result from later erosion, but an increasing to the SE thic- knessof the sediments with bentonites (Text-fig. 5) suggests rather a real regressional faClies succession. Taking into accoUJnt these facts, it is evident that the Korytnica Bay has Successively become.shallower and, shallower and, eventually, excluded from the marine sedimentation in a response to the isostatic \.1jplift of the Holy Cross land (RADWANSKI 1969, 1973). Therefore, ev~poration and accumulation of the Gypsum Member took p1Jace only in the Poi'aniec d:~'Wession, the NW end of which is located nearby the Kije-Suliszow area (see Text-figs ~6 and SZYMANKO & WOJCIK 1982). The latter area is also recorded by NW extent of the marine gravel-sandy deposits (Text-fig. 4) overlying the





/ /

Fig. 6. Paleogeography of the Korytnica Bay during regression of the Middle Miocene (Badenian) sea

J - Jurassic basement

Middle Miocene (Badenian): a - transgressive deposits, including the Korytnica Clays,

b'~Gyp'sum Member

c - investigated alluvial gravels of Late Tertiary age, d - fine-grained' marine c1astics, coeval with the investigated gravels



Gy.psum Member. This consideration indicates that the conditions pre-, v:aililng during deposition of the discussed gravels. within the ~Ol'ytnica

Basin were terrestrial.

. 'The present.;day occurrence Of these gravels overlying diverse them::"

bers of the Badenian sequence (see Text..;fig. 2B) can be well explained by 'fluviatile erosioin., The discussed area constituted probably a: small kettle between the subsequent Jurassic ridges in which river sediments could be accumulated and later preserved during Pleistocene, and/or Holocene geomorphological processes. On the other hand, the tendency to; lowering of the central 'part of the Korytnica Basin (SZYMANKO &

WOJCIK 1982) continued during the sedimentation of the gravels and resulted inthE!tr relatively great thickn~. The gravel' litho some , can be defined as an erosional outlier' resisted 'after a much larger alluvial

fan. ' ·'




, The fluviatile gravels of theKorytnicaaasin are mos.t probably a stratigraph;icequivalent O!f.marine deposits, developed,in the: fo~eland -of the Ko~nica BaYl:lnd ,assigned to !he Upper Baqenian and/or Lower Sarmatian (cf. discussion in RADWA~SKI1973, RUTKOWSKI 1976, SZCZECHURA 1982, CZAPOWSKI 1984). However, it muSt

b'.{ stressed

that similar rivereroSibn, transport and redeposition of psefitic mate-:- rial took' place' in the KorytnicaBasin after the time of regression of the Middle Miocene sea from the Carpathian Fo:redeep (Upper. Badenian' or Lower Sarmatian ?). These processes were connected with'the Plio- cene!preglacial river valleys, the action of~hilCh resulted ~i,ri',~ thedeni- .velationS which attained up


150'·m iIith~HolyC~OsS .M9untau'is {LINDNER 1977}. Simuitaneously, the!i.vers~tormedan alluvial plain in the foreiand of the I,:J;oly Cross Mountains., -Taking this into account all the loose gravels overlying the gravel-sandy marine regres,sive depo- sits in the PoIaniec Depression' c>riginated during that long


of time.

Consequently, it is thought that the 'term "detrital Sarmatian''., as used in Polish literature is (a designation of clastic deposits being, in fact, not homogenous in origin, and originated in the basin 'of the re- gressing sea and, later, under the terrestrial regime until the first Scan- dinavian icesheet reached the area in the Pleistocene.


' .. : ~ {

" The Author offers ho1s l11DSt sincere thanks to Ass.-PtofeS5or' W. BALUK,

ft-ofessor L. LINDNER and. Profes~r A. RADWA~SKI, all of the Institute of



Geology' (University of Warsaw), for critical comments and suggestian.s during preparation of this paper; All the figures were d'rawn by M. GUTOWSKA.

, , Institute 01 Geology

of the u~tverJity 01 Warsaw, , At. ZWtrkJ t Wtgury 93,

'. 024189 ~ar~a'Wa. ,poland


ALEXANDROWICZ, S. W. 1979. Middle MoiIQCene(Badenian) sequence at. G6rki, southern part of the Korytnica Bay (Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland). Acta Geol. Polon., 29 (3), 353-361. Warszawa.' ' .

, - '& PARACHONIAK, W. 1956. Miocene tuffites din the vIcinity of Pillcz6w.

Acta Geol. Polon., 6 (3), 157-166. Warszawa. .

BALUK, W. & RADWANSKI, A. 1977. Organic communlitias and faedes develop- ment of the Korytnica Basin (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Cen- tral Poland). Acta Geol. Poldn., 21 (2), 85-123. Warszawa.

& - 1979. Additional data on the orgarnlic communities and facies develop-

ment of the Korytnica Basan (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Cen- tral Pol8l!1id). Acta Geol. Pal on., 29 (3), 225-238. Warszawa.

& - 1984. New data on the Korytmiea Basin, its organd'C $mmunities and

ecological relationships between species (Middle Miocene; Holy' Cross Moun- tadns, Central Poland). Acta Geal. Polon., 34(3/4), 179-194. Warszawa.

CZAPOWSKI, G. 1984. Barrier rocks 1n the Upper Miocene at southenn margm of . . the }fPly CrQ1iS IVIts. Przegl." Gepl., 4. 1135-:-194. Warszawa. . ...

FIJ'ALKOWSKA, E.'&FIJALKOWSKI, J. 1966. Be!lltonites in the Miocenedeposits of the southern margin of the Holy Cross Mountains. Biul. IG, 194, 95-128.


GUTOWSKI, J. 1983. Paleoecology and facias analY'sUs of the Badenlian depoo.its overlying the clays in the Korybnica Basin. [In Polish]. Urnpublished M. Sc.

'.' thesis; Institute of Geology, University of Warsa'w.

~ . 1984: SedimentBryenVtironment and synecology of' macrobenthiic assemblages

of· the marly sands and red-algal limestOlIleB in the K'orytnica Basiul. (Middle ... Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, Central Poland). Acta Geol. Polon., 34 (3/4),

. I 323,-340 .. Warszawa. . . . ' ' .

- . & MACHALSKI, M. 1984. A new littoral locality within the Middle Miocene

(BaqenJ.im.) Kory1l11icaBasin (Holy croSs Mountaitrlis,' Central' Poland). . Acta Geol. Polon.;34(3/4), 195-202. Warszawa.

HAKENBERG, M .. 1969. Alblan and Cenomanian between Malog06zcz and Stanie- wice, SW border of the. Holy CroSlS Mountains; Stu.dia Geol.Polom..,26, 1-126 .

. ' . Warszawa. .. . , . . .

KOW ALEWSKI, K. 1927. Resultats des recherches sur les sediJrnents tertiailres de la partie SE de la feuiHe Pliilcz6w. C.-R. S,ecznc. SeTv. Geol.· Pologne, l1,

22~26. VVarszaw~

- ' 1930. StratiqaphJe. du Miocene des environs de Korytnica en· comparad$on avec le Tertiairec;iesautres territoires du Masstt' de S-te Crodx.



. Geol. Pologne, 6(1), 1-:....211. Warszawa.

I{:U'l'EK, J. 1962. Cherts and subltiarine' slumps in the Lower Krlmmerlcigian limes- . " .' tooeS from the vicinity of MalogosZcz (Central Poland): Acta Geol. Polon., 12

(3), 377~392. Warszawa. ,

'·1968. The Kianmeridgianand Uppermost OxfOl1'diJan dn the· SW margins df.

the Holy ,~oss Mounta.ilns, Central Poland; Part I, Stratigraphy. Acta Geol.

Polon., 18 (3), 493-586. Warszawa.· .. . .

& Gl:.AZEK,· J. 1972. The Holy Cross area, Central ' Poland, 6n the Alpine

cycle. Acta Geol. Polon., 22 (4), 603-653. Warsmwa.

LI'NDNER" L. 1977. Pleistocene glaoiatiOlIlS in the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Central Poland). Studia Geol. Polon., 53, 1-123. Warszawa.

RADWANSKI, A.' 1969. Lower Tortonian tra~ressiOin ooto the southern slopes of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Geol. Polon., 19 (1), 1~164. Warszawa.




1973. Lower Tortonmn transgression onto the south-eastern and eastern slo- pes of the HoJy Croos Mts. Acta Geol. Polon., 23 (2), 375-434. Warszawa.

1977a. Burl"Ows attri'butable to the ghost crab Ocypo~ from the Korytmica Basin (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross MountailnlS, Central Poland). Acta Geol.

Polon., 27 (2), 217-225. Warszawa. '

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731-770. Wyd. Geol.; Warszawa.

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cław. '

STUDENCKA, B: & STUDENCKI, W. 1980. A new Jacality of the Miocene fauna.

Przegl . .Geol .• 12, 690-692. Warszawa.

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SZYMANKO" J. & WOJCIK, K. 1982. Geology of the Middle Miocene Korytnica Basin (lSOuthern slopes of the Holy Cr05S Mts., Central Poland) in the light of geophysical data <lnd photogeologkal analysis. Acta GeoL. Polon., 32 (l/2), 93-100. Wa,rs1:awa.




Przedmiotem pracy j'est analiza żW,irówodsłaniających się pomiędzy Chomen- towem a Karsami w centralJnej części basenu Korytnicy (patrz fig. 1-2 oraz pl.

1-2). Zwiry te zawierają urozmaicony materiał allochtoniczny, a w porównaniu z badeńskimi osadami ahrazyjnymi rozciągającymi się wokół basenu, charaktery-

zują sIę stOiSunkowo wysok1im stopniem selekcji .j OIbróbki materiału (patrz fig. 3).

Analiza przebiegu regresji morza badeńskiego, zarówno w Zatoce Korytn,ickiej (patrz fig. ~) jak i na całym obrzeżeniu Gór Świętokrzyskich, prowadzi do wnio- sku, że badane żwiry są młodsze od wszystkiCh osadów badanu w basen.ie Kory t- nicy. Uważać je należy za fragment st'Ożka aluwialnego, zachowany po erozji

czwartorzędowej (fig. 6). Rozważane pro-cesy rzecznego transportu i sedymentacja

odbywać się mogły, zarówno na obszarze Zatoki Korytnickłej jak i na teren,ie ,są­

siadującej od pohidll1ia niecki połameckliej, w szerokim zakresie czasowym od re- gresjl morza badenu (górny bad en - dolny sarmat) do preglacjału włącznie. Z 'Okresu tego pochodzą zapewne żwiry rejonu Chmielnika przykrywające regresyw- ne osady miocenu. W świetle przedstawionej anallizy rysuje się pogląd, iż termin ,,.sarmat detrytyczny", powszechinie używany jako określenie ro,zmaitych osadów

Żiwlrowych na południowym obrzeżeniu Gór Świętokrzyskich, odnosi się w rzeczy-

wIistości do osadów genetycznie bardzo niejednorodnych oraz' różniących się wie- kiem w dość szerokim przedziale czasowym (górny baden - preglaCjał).




La, te l'er tJ





tI V


Et f

graV~ r $

1 - General view of the SE margin of the Korytnica Basin near Karsy; indicated are occurrence zones of the Korytnica Clays, ms - mariy sands, both of Middle Miocene' (Badenian) age; L Tgr - Late Tertiary alluvial gravels

2 - Close-up view of Late Tertiary alluvial gravels exposed near Karsy



Exposure of Late Tertiary alluvial gravels near Karsy (see PI. 1, Fig. 2)


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