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Tunnel valleys: Genetic models, sedimentary infill and 3D architecture

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(41) 0&& . &86 gonn: 0#-)( . &86 hfff: #,-. . &86 hffh:

(42)  ,)( . &86 hffl: &0#( ( *,!/6 hffl:

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(44) Ĝ((#(! . &86 hfffC8 /((&70&&3 #(ŀ&& (  ,&.#0&3 ),- !,#(6 1"#" '%- ./((& 0&7 l.

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(46)   0#)/-&36 ." -/#.#&#.3 ) ( (&)!/ (- .)  )(-#, , /&&3 ( ,#.#& #Ŀ,(- #( ." -..#(! ( .)  0&/. - ."- '3 "0 "  *,) )/( #'*. )( ." !)&)!#& 0)&/.#)( ( *,)*,.#- B8!8 &2(,6 gooi: ,'', . &86 hffjC8 ,.#/&, #Ŀ,(- .1( ."

(47) . ,)0##( ( ." ,')7,)(# ,)/- )( )( "( ( ." &#-.)( !&#)!(# -3-.')( ." ).", ,9 #C ." *)-#.#)( ) ." # -". 1#." ,-*. .) ." )(.#((. )( 1"#" ."3 , &).: ##C ." *,!&#& .)*)!,*"3: ( ###C ." &#.")&)!3 ) ." ,)%8 /,#(! ."

(48) . ,)0##( ( ,')7,)(# ,)/- !&#.#)(- *,. ) )(1( 1- &). )0, ." -)/." *)& ( ." # -".6 1"#" 1- (., )0, ." -)/." *)&6 ,#( )0, ." &)17!,#(. -"& .)1,- ." -/,,)/(7 #(! )( B/ . &86 gomg: )%- ( ),-0#%6 hffh: ),-0#% ( )%-6 hffj: #!8 g8kC8 Ļ#- -..#(! #'*&#- .". ." # -". 1- . &-. .'*),,#&3 ',#(7 .,'#(.#(! ( 2*&#(- 1"3 !&#)',#(6 .#& ( ',#( *)-#.- ,  )'7 ')( )'*)((. ) ." -#'(.,3 ,), B8!8

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(50) 07 && . &86 gonn: &0#( ( *,!/6 hfflC8 /,#(! ." &#-.)( ) (),."1-. /,)*6 -*,. # -".- 1, (., )0, (()-(# ( ." ,#.#-" -&-6 1"#" )-#)(&&3 ',! #( ." ),."  ,6 .",3 &)%#(! (),."1, ,#(!7,)/.-8 )*)!,*"#& "#!"- .)1,- ." -)/." -/" - ." &*- ( ." &7,.)#- ,#!6 #&#.. '&.1., *)(#(! B#,6 hffmC6 1"#" /- .,(-*),. *."13- .) ,'#( ,&.#0&3 -"),.8 (&3 &)(! ."#, (),.",( ( 1-.,( ',!#(-6 ." (()-(#( ( ,#.#-" # -".- ," ." -"& ! &#0,#(! '&.1., ( -#'(.- #,.&3 .) ." .&(.# ( B#!8 h8gC8 Ļ

(51) . ,)0##( *,!&#&  #(.) 1"#" ." ./((& 0&&3- ) (),."  ,# ( ." ,#( *(#(-/& 1, #(#- )(-#-. ) ."#% *%!- ) /(&#."#ŀ ',)7,)0##( -( B/ . &86 gomg:

(52)  ,)( . &86 hffk: "#(( . &86 hffmC8 ( ." ).", "(6 ." ()4)#  #(.) 1"#" ." /,)*(6 &#-7 .)( ./((& 0&&3- 1, #(#- )(-#-.- ) &.,(.#)(- ) /(&#."#ŀ -(6 -#&. ( &3 B',)( . &86 gooiC8. ().", ,#.#& #Ŀ,( 1#." ." &#-.)( #- .". /,#(! ." )*,).,)7 4)# (

(53) . ,)0##(6 *&(.- " (). 3. 0&)*8 /- 0!..#)( #- #'7 *),.(. #( -)#& -.#&#4.#)(6 ,)-#)(& 3('#- /,#(! ."- *,#)- 1, *,)7 &3 '/" '), ,*# ."( /,#(! ." ,')7,)(# ,)/- ( &#-.)(8 ),)0,6 *)--#& #Ŀ,(- #( -)&, &/'#()-#.3 ( .')-*",# )'*)-#.#)( /,#(! ." )*,).,)4)# '#!". "0 /- *,#)- ) 2.,' )& &#'. /,#(! 1"#" ,." 1- )'*&.&3 !&#. B#88 \-()1&& ,."]6 8!8 )Ŀ'( . &86 goonC8 Ļ 2. !)!,*"#& 2.( ( /,.#)( ) " ) ." *,#)) !&#.#)( #- ) .( )(.,)0,-#& ( '#!". "0 ( 0,3 0,#& .1( ." *,#)- B 8 ,("&3 . &86 gooj: &.4'( ( )/(!6 hffkC8 n.

(54) g8i8     . Rh. 30°. n cea cO ei. 30°. 60°. 60°. LIS. south pole. north pole. FIS. At. Late Ordovician (440 Ma). BIS la n. ti c. Ocea. n. NSB. Late Pleistocene (~20 ka). #!/, g8k9 &. ..)(# -..#(! ), ."

(55) . ,)0##( B,,1( ,)' )%- ( ),-0#%6 hffhC (

(56) . &#-.)( .#'-8 Ļ -" &#( ',.- ."

(57) . ,)0##( )(1( )(.#((.8 ,,)1- #(#. !&#)!(# *)-#.- #( 1"#" #(#.#)(- ), #7ł)1 #,.#)( "0 ( )/(8 ,3 ,- ',% ." !&#& 2.(. /,#(! ."

(58) -. &#& 2#'/' B,,1( ,)' "&,- . &86 hfggC8

(59)  Ž

(60) /,(.# # -".:   Ž ,#.#-" # -".:   Ž (()-(#( # -".:  Ž ),."  -#(8. )10,6 -*#. ." #Ŀ,(- .1( ." &#-.)( ( *,7&#-.)( !&#.#)(- .", #- () ,-)( .) --/' .". ." ./& *,)--- ) ./((&70&&3 ),'.#)( ( #(ŀ&&#(! 1, '/" #Ŀ,(.8 ), 2'*&6 ./((& 0&&3- --)#7 . 1#." " ) ."- !&#.#)(- , 0,3 -#'#&, #( '),*")&)!3 B"#(( ( 3()/26 goon: #!8 h8iC8 Ļ#- -#'#&,#.3 #( *,)--- -/!!-.- .". ." &#-.)7 ( ./((& 0&&3- , /- /& (&)!/- .) ."#, *,7&#-.)( )/(.,*,.- ( (  /- .) 0&)* *,#.#0 ')&-8 Ļ -#(7-& "0#)/, ) ." !&#& -3-.': ")10,6 1- *,)&3 '/" '), *((. )( ." ,!#)(& -..#(! ( (().  )'*, )(7.)7)(8. g8i8h. **,)". ( ."#- ."-#- ./((&70&&3 ),'.#)( #- "#ł3 ,-- 3  .#& #(0-.7 #!.#)( ) ." '),*")&)!3 )  #& &#-.)( ./((&70&&3 -3-.' #( ." (  , B/." -.), ) ." -)/.",( ),."  -#(C8 )." ." '),*")&)!3 ) ." ./((&70&&3 -3-.' ( ." ,"#../, ) ." *,!&#&  #(.) 1"#" ." ./((& 0&&3 #- #(#-6 , '** /-#(! i -#-'# .8 /,7 .",'),6 ." *,)*,.#- ) ." *,!&#&  1, .,'#( /-#(! !)*"3-#& &)! . ).#( ,)' "3,),)( 2*&),.#)( ( *,)/.#)( 1&&-8 Ļ )'7 #(.#)( ) ."- .1) . -.- &&)1- .,'#(.#)( ) ." ,&.#)(-"#* ) ." ./((&70&&3 -3-.' ( ." '#/' #(.) 1"#" #. #- #(#-6 .",3 *,)0##(! #(-#!". #(.) ." ,)-#)(& *,)---8 o.

(61)   Ļ '#( !)!,*"#& )/- ) ."#- ."-#- #- )( ." -/-/,  /(,(." ." #.3 ) '/,! B(),."1-. ,'(3C8 ,  (- (.1),% ) ./((& 0&7 &3- ,)' #& &#-.)( ! #- ,&.#0&3 &)- .) ." -/,  B8!8 "&,- (

(62) #(%6 gonoC8 /,.",'),6  .- ) '), ."( hif6fff ),")&- &&)1#(0-.#!.#)( ) ./((& 0&&3- ( ." !&#)!(# -#'(.- #(ŀ&&#(! ."' . ( /(*,(. "#!" -*.#& ,-)&/.#)(8 Ļ ,.#)(& **&# ", #- .". ,)'  .#& (&3-#- ) ."#- . -. #. 1)/&  *)--#& .) #( , ." !)'.,3 ) ." 0&&3-6 ." ,"#../, ) ./((&70&&3 #(ŀ&& ( ." *,)--- .". ,-/&. #( ŀ&&#(! ." 0&&3- (6 .) -)' 2.(.6 ./((&70&&3 ),'.#)( #.-& 8 ( ),7 ")& *(.,.#(! ." jff ' ."#% ./((&70&&3 #(ŀ&& -/--#)( ) ." , 1-&. ( ." *.,)&)!3 1- -./# #( .#& /-#(!  X (&3-#- #( ),, .) /(,0& ." -.,.#!,*"3 ( *)-#.#)(& "(!- /,#(! ./((&70&&3 #(ŀ&&8 ),,&.#)( ) ." -.,.#!,*"# /(#.- .1( ),")&- .",)/!")/. ." , *,)0#-  .#& 0#1 ) ." ,!#)(& -#'(.,3 ,"#../,8 Ļ ),")&- .". *(.,. ." !&#)!(# *)-#.- ,)' ." '/,! , , #.#)(&&3 /- .) 0&/. -0,& &!),#."'- .". (  /- .) '% *,7 #.#)(- ) ." *,)*,.#- B#( ."#- - &#.") #-C #( ." -* .1( ." ),7 ")&-8 /" #(.,*)&.#)(- , (--,3 .) '% ,&#-.# i ,-,0)#, ')&- ) !&#)!(# ,-,0)#,-8 **,)*,#. #(*/. 0&/-6 **,)"- ( 1),%ł)1- ), ."- &!),#."'- , -.&#-" - )( ." '/,! -8. g8j Ļ-#- )/.&#( Ļ#- "*., *,)0#  )(#- #(.,)/.#)( .) ,."]- !&#.#)(-6 ." !&#& -#'(.,3 -3-.' ( ./((& 0&&3-8 /,.",'),6 ." )$.#0- ) ."#- ."-#1, ),'/&. ( ." **,)" )&&)1 1- )/.&#(8 ( "*., h  )'*,7 "(-#0 &#.,./, ,0#1 -,#- ." /,,(. -.. ) %()1&! ) ./((& 0&7 &3-8 Ļ#- "*., )'*#&- ." !)!,*"#& ( .'*),& #-.,#/.#)( ) ."- ./,-6 -3(."-#4- ." .3*#& #(ŀ&& -/--#)( ( ,#.#&&3 (&3-- *,0#)/-&3 *,)*)- !(.# ')&-8 ( "*., i ." ),'.#)( ) ./((& 0&&3- #- #(7 0-.#!. - )( .#& #(.,*,..#)( ) i -#-'# . ,)' ." (  ,6 -)/.",( ),."  -#(8 - )( ." ŀ(#(!-  )(*./& ')7 & ), ./((&70&&3 ),'.#)( #- *,)*)-8 "*., j -,#- .#& *.,)7 &)!#& #(0-.#!.#)(- )  jff7' &)(! -#'(.,3 -/--#)( )(-.#./.#(! ." )'*&. #(ŀ&& -/--#)( )  ./((& 0&&3 #( ." #.3 ) '/,!6 (),."1-. ,'(38 -#(! ." -.,.#!,*"# ,'1),% *,)0# 3 ."#- 1),% )'#( 1#." ( 2.(-#0 ),")& .-6 ." ,!#)(& -#'(.,3 ,"#../, ) ." #(ŀ&& 1#."#( ."- ./((& 0&&3- #- -,# #( "*., k8  )(*./& ')& ), ./((&70&&3 #(ŀ&& #- *,)*)- - )( ." ŀ(#(!-8 ( "*., l6 -.,.!#.) )(-.,/. -..# ,-,0)#, ')&- , 0&)* - )( ." ),")& . -. ,)' ." '/,! ,8 #(&&36 #( "*., m  -3(."-#- #- ' ) ." ŀ(#(!,)' ." *,0#)/- "*.,-6 ,)''(.#)(- , ' ( 0(/- ), /./, ,-," , *,)*)-8 gf.

(63) "*., h. /((& 0&&3-9 /,,(. %()1&!̎ h8g. (.,)/.#)(. &)(!. ( * #(#-#)(- ) /* .) gff %' &(!."6 k %' 1#." ( jff ' *." ",.,#4 ." &#-.)( ( *,7&#-.)( !&#. &(-* ( -/-/,  B#!8 h8g6 h8hC8 Ļ- &( ),'- , #-.#(!/#-" ,)' ),#(,3 ł/0#7 & 0&&3- 3 ."#, ,#-#(! ( &&#(! 0&&3 ł)), ( ,/*. !#((#(!- ( (#(!-6 1"#" , ) .( )(-#, .)  ." ,-/&. ) 1., ł)1#(! !#(-.  !,#(. B 8 Á ) #!"6 goolC8 Ļ- #(#-#)(- , /-/&&3 , ,, .) - ./((& 0&&3- ( 1, ),' /(, )(.#((.&7-& # -".- 3 -/!&#& '&.1., B8!8 Á ) #!"6 gool: //- (

(64) 3%%7(,-(6 hfff: č,!(-( ( (,-(6 hfflC8 /((& 0&&3- "0 -)#& ( )()'# -#!(#ŀ( - ."3 ")-. (./,7 & ,-)/,- -/" - !,)/(1., B",* . &86 gool: /,& ),%#(! ,)/*6 hfflC6 "3,),)(- B8!8 0#-)( . &86 hfff: #,-. . &86 hffh: )/!&& . &86 hffl: &0#( ( *,!/6 hfflC6 ), '#(,&- B 8 &(!"( . &86 hffgC ( )(-.,/.#)( !!,!.- B&3.)( . &86 goooC8 (,-.(#(! ."#, #(ŀ&& ( -#'(.,3 ,"#../, #- .", ), ) ,#.#& #'*),.( ), )()'# ( (7 0#,)('(.& -*.- ,&. .) ."#, 2*&)#..#)(8 Ļ ),'.#)( ) ./((& 0&&3- "- ( . -#( ."3 1, ŀ,-. 7 -,# #( ." &. goȵȭ (./,3 B (.4-"6 gnnj: )..-"6 gnom: --#(!6 gofiC8 ,0#)/- /."),- "0 *,)*)- '"(#-'- ,(!#(! ,)' .-.,)*"# )/./,-.) -.), '&.1., B8!8 )3 . &86 gonn: #(!ŀ&6 goof: ,((( ( "16 goojC .) ,)-#)( ,#0( 3 ,&.#0&3 -&)1 ( -.37-.. ł)1 #( *,((#& -/7 ̎"*., h #- - )(9 0( , !.6 86 (-4(6 86 )-,#&&)6 86 #( *,--8 &#& ./((& 0&7 &3-9 /,,(. %()1&! ( /./, *,-*.#0-8 (9 //-6 86  ,(6 86

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(66) )()(6 *#& /&#.#)(-6 iln6  9 gf8ggjjIiln8gi. gg.

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(72) 3%%7(,-(6 hfff: č,!(-( ( (,-(6 hfflC8 ) -)' 2.(.6 )(*.- ,#0 ,)' &#-.)( ./((& 0&7 &3- "0 ( **&# .) ." 2*&(.#)( ) (#(. #(#-#)(- B8!8

(73)  ,)( . &86 hffjC8 )10,6 () )'*,"(-#0 )'*,#-)( ) *,7&#-.)( ( &#-7 .)( 0&&3- "- ( ..'*. .) .8 Ļ#- "*., #'- .) *,)0#  ,0#1 ) /,,(. %()1&! )( ./((& 0&&3-6 #(&/#(! ."#, !)'),*")&)!#& ",7 .,#-.#-6 (./, ) ." #(ŀ&& ( !(.# *,)--- #,,-*.#0 ) ! ( &)&#.38  .,  ,0#1 ) ./((& 0&&3- ,)' )." ." &#-.)( ( *,7&#-.)( !&#)!(# ,),6 ."#- "*., )Ŀ,-  )(#- -/'',3 ) ." 0,#)/- ."),#( '"(#-'- .". "0 ( *,)*)- .) 2*&#( ." ),'.#)( ( ." -7 #'(.,3 *,)--- ,-*)(-#& ), ." #(ŀ&& ) ."- &,! #(#-#)(-8 Ļ#- ,0#1 )/.&#(- ." -#!(#ŀ(. /(,.#(.#- ,&. .) ." /(,-.(#(! ) ./((&70&&3 !(-#- ( *,)*)-- -)' *,-*.#0- ), )(.#(/ -#(.#ŀ #(0-.#!.#)(-8. h8h ŀ(#.#)( /((& 0&&3- 1, ŀ,-. ,)!(#4 #( ." &. goȵȭ (./,3 3 (.4-" BgnnjC ( )..-" BgnomC #( ,'(3 ( 3 --#(! BgofiC #( (',%8 -( BgohgC &#0 .". ." 0&&37&#% #(#-#)(- -,# ,&#, " ( ),' -/!&7 #&&3 3 '&.1., ł)1#(! .",)/!"  ./((& ( ."/- #(.,)/ ." .,' \./((& 0&&3]8 #( ."(6 ")10,6 ."#- ŀ(#.#)( "- ( -/$. .) .8 0,& .,'- "0 ( /-6 -)'.#'- .) "#!"&#!". #-.#(.#)(- )(,(#(! ."#, '),7 *")&)!3 ), !(-#-8 Ļ ()(7!(.# .,' \*&) 0&&3] "- ) .( ( /- ), &)4)# !&#& #(#-#)(- -/" - ./((& 0&&3- ( ,)--7-"& .,)/!"- B8!8 / . &86 gomg: " . &86 #( *,--C8 )10,6 /- ."#- .,' #- /- ), -0,& #Ŀ,(. '),*")&)!#- .". ) (). "0 ." -' !(.# ),#!#(6 #.- /- (  '7 #!/)/-8 \/((& 0&&3] #-  '), !(.# .,' ), -/!&#&&3 ),' &( ),'.". ( )(-#-. ) )( '&.1., )(/#. ),  )'*)-#. ) '#!,.#(! ), '/&.#*& "((&- ,.#(!  &,!, '),*")&)!3 B )),-6 gonoC8 .", /."),- B&3.)( . &86 gooo: #"&, . &86 hffkC &#0 .".  -#(!& "((& ł)1#(! 1#." (%7 /&& #-",! ,. ."- &( ),'-8 Ļ -#4 ) ." 0&&3 1)/& ."/-  +/& .) ." -#4 ) ." "((&8 ) -.,-- ."#- ),'.#)(& *,)--6 ."- /."),- #(.,)7 / ." !(.# .,' \./((& "((&]8 ,#** BgoljC ,!/ .". ." #(#-#)(gh.

(74) h8i8 

(75)   

(76) 

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(78)  1, ),' 3 #,. !&#& ,)-#)( ( *,)*)- ." ,'( .,' &4#&7 &(8 #(!ŀ& BgoofC )(-#, .". ." &#-.)( #(#-#)(- ) ." ),."  )(-#-. ) &#!( -.- ) *&/(! *))&- .". 1, ),' .-.,)*"#&&36 -) " ()( ." 1), \0&&3]6 #(-. #(.,)/#(! ." .,' \'$), #(#-#)(]8 ( -/'',36 #. #- &, .". ." .,'#()&)!3 ), ."- !&#& &( ),'- "0)&0 - )( ."#, #( ,, ') ) ),'.#)(8  *,#- *,)--7- .,7 '#()&)!3 1)/& ,.#(&3  *, ,&: ")10,6 - ." /,,(. %()1&! ) ." !(.# *,)--- )- (). &&)1  ,ŀ(#.#)( ) ." ()'(&./,6 ." .,' \./(7 (& 0&&3] B-(-/ &.)C #- /- #( ."#- -./3 .) , , .) #(#-#)(- 1#." ( /(/&.#(! 0&&3 ł)), (  1#." ) &-- ."( k %'6 1"#" 1, ),' /(, # -".- .". ,-. )( ,&.#0&3 -) .  '.,#&-8 Ļ#- ŀ(#.#)( ."/- #(&/- )." \./((& 0&&3-] B-(-/ -.,#.)C ( \./((& "((&-]8. h8i. &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3-. /((& 0&&3- "0 ( -,# #( ." &#-.)( -#'(.,3 ,), ,)' '(3 !&#. ,!#)(- 1),&1# B8!8 ))&(6 gomf: )3 . &86 gonn: "&,(

(79) #(%6 gono: )),-6 gono: /&&#(- ( #("36 gono: #(!ŀ&6 goof: //- (

(80) 3%%7(,-(6 hfff: ,!6 hffi: /--&& . &86 hffi: č,!(-( ( (,-(6 hffl: Ĝ,-. ./%# . &86 hfgf: .1,. (

(81) )(,!(6 hfgg: #!8 h8g: & h8gC8 Ļ3 "0 &-) ( -,# ,)' ." ,)(. ) ." (.,.# #7-". B8!8 )'%6 goof:

(82) )1 ( (,-)(6 hffiC8 (." ." &(7 # ,#Ħ',%/,$Č%/&& !&#,6  .,)/!" "- ( ,)!(#4 .". "- 0,3 -#'#&, #'(-#)(- .) ." ./((& 0&&3- -,# &-1", B$Č,(--)(6 goolC8 ( #7 .#)(6 ,&.#0&3 -'&&7-& #(#-#)(- B#88 /* .) if ' 1#C ),' . ." &(# # ',!#( /,#(! )/./,-.- ) '&.1.,8 Ļ )'*)-#. ,-/&. ) (/',)/- -/" )/./,-. 0(.- #- *,)*)- .) ,*,-(. ( (&)!/ ), ./((& 0&&3- B/--&& . &86 hffmC8 &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3- "0 ( -,# )." )( )(.#((.& -"&0- ( &)1&(- B8!8 )3 . &86 gonn: #).,)1-%#6 goojC ( ." ),&() &,! ')/(.#( ,(!- B8!8 '#."6 hffj: Ĝ,-. ./%# . &86 hfgf: ,/--, . &86 hfgfC8 ( /,)* ( ),." ',#6 -"&&)1 ),")&- "0 ( /- .) '* ./(7 (& 0&&3- ( ."#, #(ŀ&& B8!8 ))&(6 gomf: "&,- (

(83) #(%6 gono: /--&& . &86 hffi: '#."6 hffj: ", . &86 hfgf: )6 hfggC8 1)7#'(-#)(& -#-7 '# . (6 '), ,(.&36 .",7#'(-#)(& -#-'# . "0 &-) #'*,)0 ." /(,-.(#(! ) ." !)'.,#- ) ." &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3- #( )Ŀ-"), ,!#)(- B8!8 )3 . &86 gonn: ',)( . &86 gooh: //- (

(84) 3%%7(,-(6 hfff: ,!6 hffi:

(85) )(,!( . &86 hffl: ,#-.(-( . &86 hffm: .1,. (

(86) )(,!(6 hfgg: ),/ . &86 #( *,--C8 .", !)*"3-#& '.")- -/" - !,0#.3 B8!8 #"&, . &86 hffk: Č.4 . &86 hffoC6 -ł)), ."3'.,3 B8!8

(87) )(,0# . &86 gooh: ,1&& . &86 hffn: #!8 g8iC ( #,),( ), &( &.,)'!(.# -/,03- B8!8 č,!(-( ( (,7 -(6 hffl: )-" . &86 hffo: 4%( . &86 hffoC "0 &-) ( /- .) )/.&#( gi.

(88) 

(89) 

(90)

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(92)  ." #-.,#/.#)( ( #(ŀ&& ) ./((& 0&&3- #( )." )(7 ( )Ŀ-"), ,-8 /.7 ,)* -.#)(- ) &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3- , ,&.#0&3 ,,8 ", )/.,)*- 2#-. ."3 ) .( #(.,-. ,&.#0&3 -'&& "((&- ), )(&3 ,0& ." /**,')-. *,. ) ." 0&&3 ŀ&& B3&- ( 6 gono: )),-6 gono: ,.#(# ( ,))%ŀ&6 gook: &3.)( . &86 gooo: #).,)1-%# . &86 gooo: /--&& . &86 hffiC8 Ļ &% ) -#'(.,3 0#( "- "'*, ." #(.,*,..#)( ) !(.# '"(#-'), &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3-8 )10,6 #( )'*,#-)( 1#." ." *,7&#-.)( )/(.,*,.-6 ." #-.,#/.#)( ( -.,.#!,*"# )(.2. ) &#-.)( 2'*&- #1&& 0&)* B 8 #!8 h8g6 h8hC ( *&3- ( #'*),.(. ,)& #( ." /(,-.(#(! ) ./((& 0&&3-8. h8j ,7&#-.)( ./((& 0&&3/((& 0&&3- #( ." (#(. ,)% ,), , --)#. 1#." ." ,)0##(6 ,')7,)(# ,)/- ( )*,).,)4)# !&#.#)(-8 Ļ- ./,- , *,-(. #( )/.,)* . -0,& -#.- #(  ,#6 ." #& -.6 )/." ',# ( /-7 .,&# B8!8 / . &86 gomg: #--,6 gonn: -&.6 goof: 3&- (  ,)%,.6 hffg:

(93)  ,)( . &86 hffj: -", . &86 hffk: #/ . &86 hffl: )Ŀ'( ( )(&6 hfgf: &&, . &86 hfgg: #!8 h8h: & h8gC ( "0 ( #(.#ŀ #( ." * -/-/,  /,#(! "3,),)( #(0-.#!.#)(- B #&&#0,3 ( /-7 -#(#6 gooh: ',.6 hfff: #,-. . &86 hffh: )/!&& . &86 hffl: &0#( ( *,!/6 hfflC8 #'(.)&)!#& #(0-.#!.#)( )( )/.,)*- ( ),")&-6 #(.!,. 1#." ,'). -(-#(! -./#- #( ,- ,)-- (),."  ,# ( ." #& -.6 "0 "#!"&#!". ." &,! 0,##&#.3 ) -#'(.,3 *,)--- ( *)-#.#)(& (7 0#,)('(.- B8!8 / . &86 gomg: -&.6 goof: "#(( ( 3()/26 goon: 3&- (  ,)%,.6 hffg:

(94)  ,)( . &86 hffj: ),/6 hffk: -", . &86 hffk: &,%7

(95) )1-6 hffk: &0#( ( *,!/6 hffl:

(96)  ,)(6 hffm: &&, . &86 hfggC8 0,& /."),- "0 ,1( ..(.#)( .) -#'#&,#.#- 1#." ." &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3- B"#(( ( 3()/26 goon: 3&- (  ,)%,.6 hffg:

(97)  ,)( . &86 hffjC8 )(-#,#(! ." -,#.3 ) &#-.)( ./((&7 0&&3 )/.,)*-6 ." *,7&#-.)( ./((&70&&3 ŀ& 2*)-/,-  #'*),.(. #(-#!".- "#!"&#!".#(! ." ,&0( ) )'*,#(! !&#)!(# ,),- ) #Ŀ,(. !)&)!#& !- ), /(,-.(#(! ." !(.# *,)--- ( )'*&2 -#'(.,3 ,"#../, ) *)-#.- --)#. 1#." ./((& 0&&3-8. h8k /((&70&&3 '),*")&)!3 ( (.1),% h8k8g

(98) ).#)( /((& 0&&3- &# 1#."#( ),', # ',!#(- ( , !(,&&3 ),#(.. *,&&& .) # ł)1 B)&-..6 gohh: '6 goonC8 Ļ3 *,)'#((.&3 )/, #( ,gj.

(99) 1. 2. 3. 1. 0°0’0”. 4. 5. 7. 9. 8. 10. 20. 6. 11. 19. 8°0’0”E. 13. 12. 14 15. 16°0’0”E. 16. -1000. 1000. elevation (m). 16. 18. Weichselian margin. Saalian margin. Elsterian margin. tunnel valley. 17. 24°0’0”E. 48°0’0”N. 50°0’0”N. 54°0’0”N. 58°0’0”N. #!/, h8g9 )'*#&.#)( ) ." &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3- #( (),."1-. /,)*  ., -0,& *,0#)/- /."),- B& h8gC8 ( ."#- '* ./((& 0&&3- , -")1( .". "0 ( #(.,*,. - -/" 3 ." ),#!#(& /."),-8 2#'/' # 2.(.  ., "&,- ( #, BhffjC8 &# ,)' g B'(. ( %#(-6 hffoC8. 8°0’0”W. h8k8 

(100) 7

(101)

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(103)   . gk.

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(105) . ,)0##( B#,((.#(C ./((& ( *&) 0&&3- #( (),."  ,#6 ." ,#( *(#(-/& ( -)/.",( /,)*  ., -0,& *,0#)/- /."),- B& h8gC8 ( ."#- '* ./((& 0&&3- , -")1( .". "0 ( #(.,*,. - -/" 3 ." ),#!#(& /."),-8 &# ,)' g B'(. ( %#(-6 hffoC8. 1. 12°0’0”W. 

(106) 

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(109) .

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(111) 7

(112)

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(116) )(,!( BhfggC --"#, . &8 BhfgfC. (.,& ),1!#( ),." . #"&, . &8 BhffkC. 1-.,( (#-" ),." . &)')(-( BgooiC. 1-.,( (#-" ),."  ,'( ),." . -.,( (#-" ),."  )(-"), (',% )(-"), ,'(3 -)/.",( 1( )(-"), )&(. ,#-.(-( . &8 BhffmC

(117) /.4 . &8 BhffoC. //- (

(118) 3%%7(,-( BhfffC. č,!(-( ( (,-( BhffoC .%,(. BhffoC.

(119) #',7,!-.,Č' . &8 BgoogC -#,-%# BgomoC.

(120) #."/(# ( -.,( &.# . Í&#/* . &8 BgookC. -.)(#. ..- BhffmC.

(121) .0#. &ë- . &8 BhfggC. ,( B1#.4,&(C Ĝ,-. ./%# . &8 BhfgfC

(122) % (0 B1#.4,&(C #), . &8 BhfggC

(123) . ,)0##( B#!8 h8hC /,#.(#. "#(( ( 3()/2 BgoonC. (.,#( (! B*#(C. /.#ï,,47 ,) . &8 BhfgfC. (.#7.&- B ),))C. --#&# ]$$,- B&!,#C &&#4# -#( B&!,#C. ".7#%#/'#. B

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(127)  ,)( . &8 BhffjC. )1&& . &8 BgoojC )/" ( &7$,# BgookC. & h8g9 )(.,#/.#)(- .) ." '*- ) &#-.)( (

(128) . ,)0##( ./((& 0&&3- B#!8 h8g6 h8hC. gm.

(129) 

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(134) )1 ( (,-)(6 hffiC8 Ļ \&--#&] &,! ./((& 0&&3- , )(-*#/)/-&3 -(. )( ." ,-#-.(. ,3-.&&#( -"#&-6 1",- -%,- , ,&.#0&3 /((.8 ( ." -) ., -#'(.- -/,,)/(#(! ." ',!#(- ) ."- ,3-.&&#( -"#&-6 &,! ./((& 0&&3- -/(&3 )' 1#7 -*, B&,% ( &,6 gooj: )/" ( &7$,#6 gook: )/&.)( . &86 hffoC8 Ļ#- #(#.- .". ." .3* ) -/!&#& ,#(! B#88 #( -%, ./((&), ./((& 0&&3-C #- -.,)(!&3 #(ł/( 3 ,)%8 ( ) ." ')-. 0&/& #!()-.# ,#.,# ) ./((& 0&&3- #- ."#, ,/*. !#((#(! ( .,'#(.#)(8 /((&70&&3 !#((#(!- , ,*),. .) "0 -&)*) .1( g ( gi‡ ( .,'#(.#)(- ,(!#(! ,)' g .) gg‡ B8!8 ,#-.(-( . &86 hffn: ),/ . &86 #( *,--C8 Ļ .,'#(.#)( ) ./((& 0&&3- ) .( )#(#- 1#." "(!- #( ." -/-.,./'8 ), 2'*&6 ." .,(-#.#)( .)  '), *,'& -/-.,./' '#!". &&)1 '&.1., .) ,#( .",)/!" ." -/-.,./'6 ,-/&.#(! #( ,-#(! ,)-#0 *)1, )  -/!&#& '&.1., -.,' B))&(6 gomf: ),%# ( ,43-4%)1-%#6 goom: &--, ( ',))% '#."6 goooC8 Ļ .,'#(.#)(- ) ./((& 0&&3- , ) .( ',% 3 )/.1-" (- B--7 #(!6 gofi: ..,-)(6 gooj: #).,)1-%#6 gooj: ),%# ( ,43-4%)1-%#6 goom: /.&, . &86 hffh: č,!(-( ( (,-(6 hffl:

(135)  ,)( ( ,#!6 hffnC ( ).", #7',!#(& ),'.#)(- -/" - '),#(- ), &.- 1", ./((& 0&&3.,'#(. . ,--#)(& ',!#(- B--#(!6 gofi: )),-6 gono: ..,-)(6 gooj: ,)"( . &86 hffo: )6 hfggC8 Ļ- !&#& &( ),'- ( ," /* .) gkf ' )0 ." &0& ) ." ./((&70&&3 ł)), B--#(!6 gofi: ,)"( . &86 hffoC8. h8k8h #'(-#)(/((&70&&3 '),*")&)!3 #- "#!"&3 0,#&6 1#." ."#, *."- ,(!#(! ,)' .(B8!8 )),-6 gonoC .) jff ' B8!8 "&,- (

(136) #(%6 gonoC8

(137) (!."- ,(!#(! ,)'  1 %' .) '), ."( gff %' "0 ( )-,0 B,#!".6 gomi: 3&( 6 gono: ,!6 hffi:

(138)  ,)( . &86 hffj: ),/ . &86 #( *,--C8 #."- ,(! ,)' &-- ."( gff ' B))&(6 gomf: )),-6 gonoC .) j7k %' B/ . &86 gomg:

(139)  ,)( . &86 hffj: č,!(-( ( (,-(6 hffl: ,#-.(-( . &86 hffmC8 Ļ 1#."@*." ,.#) ) ./((& 0&&3- #- ) .( )/( .)  &)- .) gf9g B8!8 "#(( ( 3()/26 goon: #&#(!6 hfflC6 1"#" &&)1."' .)  #Ŀ,(.#. ,)' ).", #(#-#)(- -/" - *,)!&#& "((&- ), ,)--7 -"& .,)/!"- B" . &86 #( *,--C8 &#)!(# #(#-#)(- .". , 1#, ."( k %' , )'')(&3 )(-#, .) ,*,-(. # -.,'- ), ,)--7-"& .,)/!"- ,.", ."( ./((& 0&&3- B"#(( . &86 hffmC8 Ļ ,-#-.( .) ,)-#)( ) ." -/-.,./' #(ł/(- ." -#4 ( ." 1#."7 .)7*." ,.#) ) ." 0&&3 B))&(6 gomf: )),-6 gonoC8 ), 2'*&6 -)' ./((& 0&&3- #(#- #(.) ." ,.)/- "&% ) -. (!&# , (,,)1, ."( ." 1# 0&&3- ),' )( ." /(&#."#ŀ -(3  #( ).", *,.- ) ." ),." gn.

(140) h8k8 

(141) 7

(142)

(143)  

(144)     -#( B 8 ))&(6 gomf: ,!6 hffi: ),/ . &86 #( *,--C8 #'#&,&36 (,,)1 -"*- ",.,#4 ,')7,)(# ,)/- 0&&3- ) /-.,&#6 1"#" 1, #(#- #(.) &#."#ŀ ,)%- B3&- (  ,)%,.6 hffgC8 ), ,-#-.(. -.,. '3 &-) ,- ." *." ) 0&&3 #(#-#)( B"&,- (

(145) #(%6 gono: /--&& . &86 hffiC8 Ļ *." ( ." 1#." ) ./((& 0&&3- &-) -' .)  ,&. .) #7 -". *,'.,- -/" - ." # ."#%(--8 Ļ &.., #( . !)0,(- ." *,--/, ,!#' /(, ." #6 1"#"6 #( ./,(6 1)/& .,'#( ." '2#'/' *." .) 1"#" ./((& 0&&3- (  ,0 1#.")/. #(! &)- 3 # ,* B36 gomlC8 Ļ '#(#'/' #'(-#)(- ) ./((& 0&&3- , ,,&3 ,*),. #( ." &#.,.7 /,8 $)!,( . &8 BhffhC -,# -3-.'- ) &#(% *).")&- .". '#!". ,*,-(. ." ,&#-. -.!- ) ./((&70&&3 ),'.#)( B, ,, .) 3 $)!,( . &8 BhffhC - \#(#*#(. ./((& "((&-]C8 Ļ#- 1)/& #'*&3 .".  )(.#(/)/- -*.,/' ) ./((&70&&3 -#4- -")/&  *,-(.6 ,(!#(! ,)' ."- *).")&- .) './, ./(7 (& 0&&3-8. h8k8i. ,)--7-.#)(& '),*")&)!3. /- ) ." -*,-#.3 ) ./((& 0&&3- #( )/.,)*6 &#..& "- ( ,*),. )( ." '),*")&)!#& -*.- ) ." ł(%- ) ./((& 0&&3-8 ),*")'.,# (&3-##- *,#',#&3 - )( )/.,)* . ) ,&.#0&3 -'&& ./((& 0&&3- ( #( ,, ,)' -/-/,  !)*"3-#& ( ),")& .8 Ļ -#- (  0,3 -.* B#88 27 #(! jk‡C ( '3 0(  0,.#& ), )0,"(!#(! B8!8 ))&(6 gomf: #)7 .,)1-%# . &86 gooo: / . &86 gomg: #!8 h8iC8 )10,6 !(,&&3 !(.&, (!&B#88 gh@ih‡ ), &#-.)( ./((& 0&&3- ) ." ),."  -#(6 ,#-.(-( . &8 BhffmC: gn@hk‡ ), ,)0##( 0&&3- #( (),."  ,#6

(146)  ,)( . &8 BhffjC: #!8 h8iC , )-,08 Ļ ł(%- ) -)' *,7&#-.)( ./((& 0&&3- )(.#( #(., ),'.#)(& -.,#. *0'(.-6 #(#.#(! &)#(!6 ,-#)( ( -",#(! ) ." -/-.,. ,-/&.#(! ,)' )(.. ) ')0#(! # 1#." ." -#'(. #(.,  B

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(167)   . 0. 1 0 1 2 3 4 vertical exaggeration: 10x. 5 km. 200 m. Cayuga Lake (Finger Lakes), USA Mullins and Hinchey, 1989. Sognefjord, Norway* Nesje and Sulebak, 1994. Coding Deep, Irish Sea Whittington, 1977. eastern Poland Mojski, 1982. Montana, USA Smith, 2004. Harku, Estonia Vaher et al., 2010. subglacial incision, Breiðamerkurjökull,Iceland Björnsson, 1996. Gipping valley, East Anglia, UK Woodland, 1970. Vendsyssel, Denmark Sandersen et al., 2009. southern Ontario, Canada Russell et al., 2003. Scotian Shelf, Canada Boyd et al., 1988. Hamburg Billwerder, Germany Ehlers et al., 1984. Golczewo, Poland Dobracki and Krzyszkowski, 1997 Lake Geneva, Switzerland Fiore et al., 2011. Danish North Sea Huuse and Lykke-Andersen, 2000 cross-shelf trough, northern Norway* Thorsnes et al., 2009. Anti-Atlas, Morocco Le Heron, 2007 (schematic). Adrar, Mauritania Ghienne and Deynoux, 1998. Pleistocene. paleaovalley, Bolivia* Bache et al., in press. Tassili N’ Ajjer, Algeria Eschard et al., 2005 Tassili N’Ajjer, Algeria Beuf et al., 1971. central Saudi Arabia Vaslet, 1990 (schematic). Paleozoic. hg.

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