• Nie Znaleziono Wyników

Two-dimensional growth, anisotropic polaron transport, and magnetic phase segregation in epitaxial Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films


Academic year: 2021

Share "Two-dimensional growth, anisotropic polaron transport, and magnetic phase segregation in epitaxial Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films"

Pokaż więcej ( Stron)

Pełen tekst


Two-dimensional growth, anisotropic polaron transport, and magnetic phase

segregation in epitaxial Nd







V. G. Prokhorova兲and G. G. Kaminsky Institute of Metal Physics, NASU, Kiev 03142, Ukraine J. M. Kim, T. W. Eom, J. S. Park, and Y. P. Lee

q-Psi and Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea V. L. Svetchnikov

National Center for HREM, TU Delft, 2628AL, The Netherlands

G. G. Levtchenko, A. V. Paschenko, Yu. V. Medvedev, Yu. M. Nikolaenko, G. V. Bukin, and V. A. Khokhlov

Donetsk Institute of Physics and Technology, NASU, Donetsk 83114, Ukraine 共Submitted May 5, 2010兲

Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 37, 141–149共February 2011兲

Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films have been fabricated by dc magnetron sputtering on single-crystal LaAlO3共001兲 and SrTiO3共011兲 substrates with additional annealing to relax the lattice strain. Although the Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3films were deposited simultaneously on different substrates at the same deposition rate, they differ in thickness by a factor of⯝

冑2. The observed difference in

thickness is explained by the two-dimensional共layer-by-layer兲 film growth, rather than by a dif-ference in growth rate controlled by the crystalline orientation of the substrate. An analysis of optical and transport properties reveals that the observed anisotropy in the polaron motion is governed by a strong anisotropy in the trapping energy, rather than in polaron formation. It is shown that the deposited Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films exhibit magnetic behavior typical of two-phase magnetic systems and should be regarded as an assembly of interacting magnetic clusters. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.关doi:10.1063/1.3554368兴


The hole-doped manganites L1−xAxMnO3, where L and A are a trivalent lanthanide ion and a divalent alkaline-earth ion, respectively, have attracted considerable attention be-cause of their interesting fundamental properties, connected with colossal magnetoresistance 共CMR兲, and their potential for applications.1 However, practical development of these potential applications requires an understanding of some ba-sic aspects of their structure-property relationships. The doped manganite perovskites exhibit a strong correlation be-tween their lattice structure and magneto-transport proper-ties, and this phenomenon becomes more important in thin films.2–5 Consider thin Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films as an ex-ample. According to the phase diagram,6Nd1−xSrxMnO3is a typical system whose ground state varies from a ferromag-netic 共FM兲 metal to an A-type antiferromagnetic 共AFM兲 metal when the Sr doping reaches 0.5. In addition, a charge-ordered共CO兲 phase with a so-called CE-type AFM structure is formed in a very narrow doping range near x⬇0.5. At the same time, the ground state of this compound is drastically dependent on the degree of crystallinity, the lattice strain, the chemical homogeneity, and microstructure clustering, which are controlled by the fabrication technique. Thus the CO state can be stabilized by long-range lattice strain accumu-lated during film deposition.7,8CO CE-type AFM states can be suppressed by increasing the film thickness,9with a high hydrostatic pressure,10,11by decreasing the grain size in

poly-crystalline samples,12,13and by applying an electric field.14 Therefore, the film crystallinity, the microstructure, and the epitaxial relationship to the substrate need to be fully con-trolled in order to obtain high-quality single- or multi-layer epitaxial films for specific applications.

Here we report some experiments on Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 共NSMO兲 films deposited on single-crystal LaAlO3共001兲 and SrTiO3 共011兲 substrates. The observed evidence of two-dimensional film growth and the significant differences in the physical properties of these films owing to crystal-lattice an-isotropy, are discussed in detail.


The films were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at a substrate temperature of 650 ° C.15To avoid the influence of lattice strain accumulated during deposition, the films were all annealed at 900 ° C for 2 h in air. ␪-2␪ x-ray diffraction 共XRD兲 patterns were obtained using a Rigaku diffractometer with Cu K radiation. The lattice parameters evaluated di-rectly from the XRD data were plotted against cos 2␪/sin␪. The intercept of the extrapolated straight line to cos 2␪/sin␪= 0 yielded a more precise value of the lattice parameter. High-resolution electron-microscopy 共HREM兲 was carried out using a Philips CM300UT-FEG microscope with a field emission gun operated at 300 kV. The point res-olution of the microscope was in the order of 0.12 nm. Cross-section specimens were prepared by the standard

tech-1063-777X/2011/37共2兲/8/$32.00 112 © 2011 American Institute of Physics


niques using mechanical polishing followed by ion-beam milling at a grazing incidence. All the microstructure surements were made at room temperature. Resistance mea-surements were made by the four-probe method over a tem-perature range of 4.2– 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 5 T. The field-cooled共FC兲 and the zero-field-cooled 共ZFC兲 magnetization curves were taken with a Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer with an in-plane magnetic field orien-tation. Magnetization curves for the bare substrates were ex-tracted from the raw experimental curves. Optical-density 共OD兲 spectra were obtained using a PGS-2 spectrograph from Carl Zeiss GmbH.


Figure 1 shows some ␪-2␪ XRD scans for the films, which were simultaneously deposited on LaAlO3共LAO兲 and SrTiO3共STO兲 substrates under the same conditions. Only the fundamental, high intensity Bragg peaks for the film共F兲 and the substrate 共S兲 were observed, indicating that the deposi-tion results in a highly oriented crystal structure. This is con-firmed by analysis of the transmission contrast of the HREM images. At the same time, the cross-sectional low-magnification HREM images, shown in the insets in Fig. 1, show that the films have significantly different thicknesses 共d=85 and 60 nm for the films deposited on LAO and STO, respectively兲, although the deposition rates for both were the same. Therefore, we may conclude that the film growth rates are different on the LAO共001兲 and the STO 共011兲 substrates. This is to be expected, given that the growth rate for cubic crystals along the关100兴 orientation, as a rule, is significantly higher than that along关110兴. It has been shown recently that the growth-rate ratio s100/s110 ranges from 1.2–1.8 for face-centered cubic structures.16 In our case, assuming that the growth speed is d/t, where t is the deposition time, s100/s110⬃1.42, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. However, other things also affect the thickness of films deposited on a single-crystal substrates.

Figure 2 shows cross-sectional high-magnification HREM images taken along the 关010兴 axis for the films, de-posited on LAO共a兲 and STO 共b兲, including the film/substrate interfaces. Both films have an atomically clean and sharp interface without an amorphous intermediate layer or pre-cipitates. The epitaxial relationships for film and substrate were found to be 关001兴 NSMO储关001兴 LAO and 关011兴 NSMO储关011兴 STO. The insets in Fig. 2 show that the dis-tances between the rows of atoms 共atomic layer thickness DL兲 formed on the substrate surface during deposition are significantly different: DL= c and c/

冑2 for the NSMO/LAO

and the NSMO/STO films, respectively, where c is the out-of-plane lattice parameter for cubic symmetry. This fact can help elucidate the growth mechanism.

Three kinds of growth mechanism are typical in thin films. These are the Volmer–Weber 共island兲 mode, the

20 30 40 50 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 (0 4 4 ) (0 0 2 ) F S S F S F F S (0 2 2 ) (0 04) NSMO/STO NSMO/LAO NS M O /L A O d =8 5n m NS M O /S TO d =6 0n m 2 , degθ Int ensity , 1 0 cps 5

FIG. 1. XRD scans for NSMO/LAO and NSMO/STO films. F and S indi-cate the fundamental Bragg peaks for the film and the substrate, respec-tively. The insets are low-magnification cross-sectional HREM images taken at room temperature for the corresponding films. It can be seen that the films have different thicknesses.









D = c


D = c 2


FIG. 2. High-magnification cross-sectional HREM images taken at room temperature for NSMO/LAO 共a兲 and NSMO/STO 共b兲 films. The dashed lines indicate the interface between film and substrate. c and a are the crystal lattice axes. The insets illustrate the atomic structure of the films in detail.


Frank–van der Merwe 共layer兲 mode, and the intermediate Stranski–Krastanov 共layer-plus-island兲 mode.17 The well-defined atomic layered structure of the films 共see Fig. 2兲 allows us to suggest that only the last two mechanisms are realized in our case, because both assume layer-by-layer film growth. Given that the layer-plus-island mode is preferable to the layer mode, because of adsorption-energy competition,17 one can conclude that these films grow through the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism. Then the film thickness can be expressed as the product of the atomic-layer number 共nL兲 and layer thickness, d=nLDL. Even assuming that the number of layers is equal for both films, the thick-ness ratio for the NSMO/LAO and the NSMO/STO films differs with the difference in the layer thickness, i.e., DLLAO/DLSTO⯝

冑2. Thus, the observed difference in the

thick-ness of the grown films follows from the special two-dimensional共layer-by-layer兲 film growth.


Figure 3a shows OD spectra for the NSMO/LAO and the NSMO/STO films with d = 85 and 60 nm, respectively, taken at room temperature. OD spectra for the bare substrates were extracted from the raw experimental curves. The first notice-able difference in optical properties between the NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO films is in the transmission 共T兲 value, which is higher by nearly an order of magnitude for the NSMO film deposited on the LAO共001兲 substrate. A similar peculiarity of the OD spectra for half-doped NSMO films has been observed previously at low temperatures, and explained by highly anisotropic orbital ordering.7 On the other hand, the low-energy region in the optical spectra for manganites is identified as an incoherent background involving strong Jahn–Teller interactions with the polaron terms; this results in charge-transfer excitations from the oxygen 2p-band states to bands involving the manganese egstates near 3 eV.18 Fur-thermore, crystal-field splitting governed by the Jahn–Teller effect would split the energies of the charge-transfer excita-tions and produce a fine structure in the central peak 共indi-cated by arrows in Fig. 3a兲. The energy difference corre-sponds to charge-transfer excitation of⬃76 and 73 meV, for NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO, respectively. These values are very close to the polaron gap, which is typical for this compound at temperatures above the metal-insulator 共MI兲 transition.19

Figure 3b shows the temperature dependence of the re-sistance, R共T兲, without 共open symbols兲 and with 共solid sym-bols兲 an applied magnetic field of 5 T, for the same films. An analysis of the experimental R共T兲 curves terms of the small-polaron motion model,20R共T兲⬃T exp共EA/kBT兲, where EAis an activation energy and kBis the Boltzmann constant, yields

EA= 150 and 110 meV, for NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO, respectively.

Figure 4 shows the in-plane FC共solid symbols兲 and the ZFC 共open symbols兲 temperature dependences of the mag-netic moment, M共T兲, for the NSMO/STO films with thick-ness d = 240 共a兲, 120 共b兲 and 60 共c兲 nm at different applied magnetic fields. The ZFC and FC M共T兲 curves were obtained for rising temperature after film cooling without and with an external magnetic field, respectively. All the films manifest an FM transition with decreasing temperature at a Curie

tem-perature TC⬃220 K, which is very close to published data for this compound.6,21 At the same time, the films manifest the well-defined ZFC/FC M共T兲 splitting 共even for high ap-plied magnetic fields兲, which is typical for magnetic multi-phase 关cluster-glass or superparamagnetic 共SPM兲兴 systems. Coexistence of small-sized FM and AFM clusters at low temperatures has already been observed in similar compounds.12,22,23It has been shown, that the AFM clusters are caused by a crystal-lattice transition from an orthorhom-bic to a monoclinic phase at T艋TNwith the formation of a twin domain structure.24 The Néel temperature, TN, which was extracted from the reduced magnetic moment MFC/MZFC共T兲 curve 共not shown兲,25also turned out to be the same for all the films, TN⬃150 K.

Figure 5 shows the analogous M共T兲 curves for NSMO/ LAO films with thicknesses d = 160 共a兲, 110 共b兲 and 50 共c兲 nm at different applied magnetic fields. These films manifest a significant thickness dependence of the Curie temperature and a minor FC/ZFC M共T兲 splitting 共except for the thinnest

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 100 200 250 103 104 T = 50% T = 6.3% a NSMO/LAO NSMO/LAO NSMO/STO Opt ica ld ens ity , ar b .u n its Photon energy, eV b NSMO/STO , Ω R , K T 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 150 Mn (3+eg) O2p = 150 meV EA = 110 meV EA TMI

FIG. 3.共a兲 Optical-density spectra for NSMO/LAO and NSMO/STO films, taken at room temperature. T is the transmission. The arrows indicate the fine structure of a charge-transfer peak, governed by the eg-level splitting.

共b兲 Temperature dependence of the resistance for NSMO/LAO and NSMO/ STO films, without 共open symbols兲 and with 共solid symbols兲 an applied magnetic field of 5 T. The arrow indicates the MI transition temperature. EA

is the activation energy derived from the small polaron model.


film兲, in contrast to the NSMO/STO films. At the same time, the Néel temperature is almost identical for these films, TN ⬃125 K. Analysis of the M共T兲 curves yields TC⬃220, 180 and 115 K for NSMO/LAO with d = 160, 110 and 50 nm, respectively. Figure 6 illustrates the in-plane hysteresis loops, M共H兲, at 10 K for NSMO/LAO 共a兲 and NSMO/STO 共b兲 films with different thicknesses. All these films were measured in the ZFC regime. It can be seen that the NSMO/ LAO films have a much higher saturation magnetic moment Msthan the NSMO/STO films. Moreover, the M共H兲 curves for the NSMO/STO films are unsaturated up to the highest magnetic field and manifest a linear increase with increasing magnetic field that implies the presence of an AFM phase. A similar unsaturated hysteresis loop is also observed in NSMO/LAO with d⬃50 nm.

The major magnetic characteristics of the films are sum-marized in Table I.


We now examine the anisotropic origin of the polaron state observed in these films in more detail. In the adiabatic limit the activation energy for small-lattice-polaron 共Hol-stein兲 motion involves two terms, EA= Eg/2+WH, where Eg is the so-called trapping energy or the energy difference be-tween the lattice distortion with and without a hole and WHis the polaron formation energy.20 The polaron formation en-ergy in our case can be attributed to the enen-ergy splitting of the charge-transfer central peak共see inset in Fig. 3a兲, which is interpreted as a polaron gap, WH=⌬g, and is almost the same for the NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO films. At the same time, the difference between EA and WH, 74 and 0 1 2 0 1 2 50 100 150 200 250 0 0 1 H, T H, T H, T 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.01 d = 240 nm a 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.01 d = 120 nm b , K T d = 60 nm 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.05 0.01 c M , /Mn mB M , /Mn mB M , /Mn mB

FIG. 4. Temperature dependence of the in-plane FC 共solid symbols兲 and ZFC 共open symbols兲 magnetic moments for the NSMO/STO films with thicknesses d = 240共a兲, 120 共b兲 and 60 共c兲 nm for different applied magnetic fields. 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 0 1 d = 160 nm H, T H, T H, T 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.01 a d = 110 nm 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.01 b d = 50 nm 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.01 c 50 100 150 200 250 , K T M , /Mn mB M , /Mn mB M , /Mn mB

FIG. 5. Temperature dependence of the in-plane FC共solid symbols兲 and the ZFC 共open symbols兲 magnetic moments for the NSMO/LAO films with thicknesses d = 160共a兲, 110 共b兲 and 50 共c兲 nm for different applied magnetic fields.


37 meV for the NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO films, respec-tively, is large for these films. Consequently, the observed anisotropy of the polaron motion is governed by a strong

anisotropy of the trapping energy Eg, rather than of the po-laron formation energy WH.

Analysis of the M共T兲 curves for these films 共see Figs. 4 and 5兲 reveals that TCis almost independent of the thickness for NSMO/STO but is very sensitive to the thickness for NSMO/LAO共see Table I兲. This phenomenon is mainly con-trolled by the lattice strain accumulated during epitaxial growth of the films, which greatly affects the formation of a spin-ordered state. Let us analyze our data using the Millis model.26 For a weak lattice strain␧ and cubic symmetry, TC can be expressed as TC共␧兲 = TC0

1 −␣␧B− 1 2⌬␧JT 2

, 共1兲 where ␣=共1/TC0兲共dTC/d␧B兲, and ⌬=共1/TC0兲共d2TC/d␧JT2兲. The magnitudes of␣and⌬ represent the relative weights for the symmetry-conserving bulk strain ␧B and the symmetry-breaking Jahn–Teller strain ␧JT, respectively. According to the model,␣⬃10 for a reasonable electron-phonon coupling 共0.5艋␭艋1兲 in this compound, where ␭ is the electron-phonon-interaction constant, and ⌬⬃5000. The bulk strain ␧B=共2␧100+␧001兲 and the Jahn–Teller strain ␧JT=


/3共␧001 −␧100兲, where ␧100=共abulk− afilm兲/abulk and ␧001=共cbulk − cfilm兲/cbulkare the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice strains. For example, let us consider the change in TCpredicted by the model for the NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO films with the maximum and minimum thickness. Analysis of XRD and HREM data shows that the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters for NSMO/STO correspond to a⬃0.386 and 0.387 nm and c⬃0.3823 and 0.381 nm for d⬃240 and 60 nm, respectively. Similar for NSMO/LAO: a⬃0.384 and 0.379 nm and c⬃0.388 and 0.394 nm for d⬃160 and 50 nm, respectively. The estimated values of ␧100 and ␧001 indicate that the NSMO/STO films have biaxial tensile in-plane and compressive out-of-in-plane lattice strains while the NSMO/LAO films are exposed to compressive in-plane and tensile out-of-plane strains. This is typical of manganite films deposited on the STO and LAO substrates.27,28Taking the Curie point and lattice parameters of thick films to be the same as the “bulk” material, we estimate the corresponding TC values for NSMO/STO 共d⬃60 nm兲 and NSMO/LAO 共d⬃50 nm兲 to be 211 and 118 K, respectively, in excellent agreement with the experimental data共see Table I兲.

We can, therefore, conclude that the observed thickness dependence of the Curie temperature in the Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films, deposited on single-crystal SrTiO3 共011兲 and LaAlO3 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 –0.5 0 –2 –1 0 1 2 LAO 10 K in-plane 1 2 3 a H, T STO 10 K in-plane b 1 2 3 M , /Mn mB M , /Mn mB –1.5 –1.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

FIG. 6. Magnetic field dependences of the in-plane magnetic moment for共a兲 NSMO/LAO with d = 50共1兲, 110 共2兲 and 160 共3兲 nm, and 共b兲 for NSMO/ STO with d = 60共1兲, 120 共2兲 and 240 共3兲 nm, measured at 10 K. The curves are nominal fits.

TABLE I. Magnetic characteristics for the investigated films.

Samples Thickness d, nm Curie point TC, K Néel point TN, K Saturation magnetic moment Ms,␮B/Mn Remanence magnetic moment Mr,␮B/Mn Coercive field Hc, Oe NSMO/STO 60 220 150 0.88 0.55 580 NSMO/STO 120 220 150 1.26 0.85 500 NSMO/STO 240 220 150 1.92 1.21 450 NSMO/LAO 50 115 125 1.71 1.11 600 NSMO/LAO 110 180 125 2.73 1.79 550 NSMO/LAO 160 220 125 3.45 2.03 500


共001兲 substrates is controlled by the sign and intensity of the accumulated lattice strains.

At the same time, according to the magnetic phase dia-gram Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 undergoes an AFM transition 共CE-type兲 at TN艋150 K. The magnetic measurements 共see Table I兲 indicate that the Néel temperature does not depend on thickness and is slightly lower for the NSMO/LAO films. As in the case of the Curie point, the observed slight difference in TN between NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO can be ex-plained by the different lattice strain intensities in these films.

Figure 6 shows that the NSMO/LAO films have a higher saturation magnetic moment 共Ms兲 and remanence 共Mr兲 than the NSMO/STO films. Moreover, Ms and Mr decrease with decreasing thickness for both kinds of films. As a rule, the saturation magnetic moment per unit cell determines the vol-ume of the FM phase in a sample. For NSMO/LAO with d ⬃160 nm Ms⬃3.45␮B/Mn, while for NSMO/STO with d ⬃240 nm Ms⬃2␮B/Mn. In addition, the M共H兲 hysteresis loops for all the NSMO/STO films 共as well as the thinnest NSMO/LAO兲 remain unsaturated up to highest applied mag-netic field and manifest a linear increase in the magmag-netic moment with rising H, which is typical for the AFM phase. Therefore, the Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3films can be treated as two-phase magnetic systems, the magnetic properties of which are controlled by the competition between ferromagnetic double-exchange and antiferromagnetic superexchange. On the other hand, the hole-doped perovskite manganites are strongly correlated systems and have a tendency toward phase separation, including the magnetic phase.1 Therefore, the two magnetic phases are segregated into FM and AFM clusters and coexist for T艋TN.22,29

The main evidence for magnetic phase separation共or a magnetic clustering兲 is ZFC/FC M共T兲 splitting, which was observed for all the NSMO/STO films and for the NSMO/ LAO film with d⬃50 nm over a wide range of applied mag-netic fields 共see Figs. 4 and 5兲. This phenomenon has been interpreted as a source of the glassy magnetic behavior and the phase segregated state treated as a cluster-glass or spin-glass-like phase.30

Figure 7a shows the magnetic field variations in the splitting point between the ZFC-FC M共T兲 curves, T*共H兲, for

NSMO/STO 共d⬃60, 120 and 240 nm兲 and NSMO/LAO 共d ⬃50 nm兲. All the films have a strong and similar T*共H兲

dependence proportional to⬃1/H.

According to the classical spin-glass model, the T*共H兲 curve is described by the Almeida-Thouless ZFC/FC M共T兲 irreversibility line:31 T*共H兲 = T*共0兲

1 −

3 4 H2 J2


, 共2兲

where J is the exchange integral, which can be described by J = 3kBTC/关2zS共S+1兲兴, where TCis the Curie temperature, z = 6 is the number of nearest neighbor atoms 共because we assume a cubic unit cell兲, and S=1.74 is the spin value 共as an average of S1= 2 and S2= 3/2 corresponding to the Mn4+and the Mn3+ ions, respectively兲. Figure 7a includes the Almeida–Thouless curve共ATL兲 obtained without any fitting parameters, using the experimental values for the Curie point 共220 K兲 and the saturation magnetic moment for the

com-plete FM state共⬃3.45␮B/Mn兲. The theoretical curve has a weaker T*共H兲 dependence than the experimental data. An alternative cluster-glass共or droplet兲 model,32which includes a field dependence for the magnetic correlation length, pre-dicts a strong rise of T* with increasing magnetic field, in contrast with our results.30

On the other hand, the magnetic phase-separated state can be regarded as an ensemble of superparamagnetic共SPM兲 particles. In this case T*is equivalent to a blocking tempera-ture共TB兲, given by kBTB⬃KVSPM,33,34above which the mag-netic moments of the SPM particles move freely owing to thermal fluctuations while they shift into the blocked state at T艋TB. Here KVSPMis the energy barrier between two direc-tions of the magnetic moment in a single SPM particle, par-allel and opposite to the applied magnetic field, and K is the magnetic anisotropy constant. For noninteracting SPM par-ticles TB共H兲 is given by35,36 50 100 150 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 ATL N-SPM I-SPM a b H, T 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 T * ,K MsB , /Mn m



( ) ~



FIG. 7. 共a兲 Magnetic field dependences of the splitting point between the ZFC-FC M共T兲 curves, T*共H兲, for NSMO/STO 关d⬃60 共solid squares兲, 120 共open circles兲 and 240 nm 共solid circles兲兴 and NSMO/LAO 关d⬃50 nm 共open squares兲兴 films. The solid curves are theoretical values predicted by the spin-glass共ATL兲, noninteracting superparamagnet 共N-SPM兲, and inter-acting superparamagnet共I-SPM兲 models. 共b兲 Magnetic field dependences of the saturation magnetic moment derived from the FC M共T兲 experimental curves for the same films. The solid curves are the fit curves described in text.


TB共H兲 = TB共0兲

1 −

H H0


, 共3兲

where TB共0兲 is the blocking temperature without a magnetic field and H0= 2K/0Ms. The theoretical curve, denoted as N-SPM, was calculated using experimental data, K ⬃8.4·104J · m−3 共for an Nd

0.5Sr0.5MnO3 film兲3,4 and Ms ⬃3.45␮B/Mn. However, as in the spin-glass-like model, a significant disagreement between the experimental and theo-retical TB共H兲 dependences is also observed.

Lately the model of an interacting superparamagnetic 共I-SPM兲 phase has been used to analyze SPM materials, includ-ing the strong dipolar interaction between SPM clusters.4,37–40Apart from the direct numerical simulations, the dipolar interaction is introduced by properly modifying the argument of the Langevin function for the noninteracting SPM particles: ␮effH/kBT→H/kB 共T+TD兲, where 2TD =␣M0/kBN is the so-called “dipolar temperature,” ␣ is a constant on the order of unity, N is the number of Mn ions per unit volume, and M0is the magnetic moment at T = 0 K, taken from the M共T兲 experimental curves for different ap-plied magnetic fields. Since␮eff⬃VSPM⬃TBand N = 1 in our case, we can write

TB共H兲 = TB共0兲 1 关1 +␣M02/kBT

. 共4兲

Figure 7b shows that the magnetic field dependences of M0for the NSMO/STO films can be excellently fitted by the universal function M0共H兲/AH1/2, where A is varied from 1.9 to 1.5␮B· T−1/2 as the thickness decreases. Therefore, Eq. 共4兲 can be modified to TB共H兲=TB共0兲/共1+␤H兲, where␤ =␣A2/k

BT. Figure 7a shows that the theoretical curve with the fit parameters TB共0兲=140 K and␤= 35 T−1, indicated by I-SPM, is in excellent agreement with the experimental curve.

The NSMO/STO films共and thinnest NSMO/LAO兲 can, therefore, be treated as interacting SPM systems rather than classical spin glasses or the Langevin-like SPMs. At the same time ZFC/FC M共T兲 splitting can hardly be seen in the thick NSMO/LAO films 共see Figs. 5a and 5b兲. This is ex-plained by the large volume of the FM phase in the films, which is confirmed by the large values of Ms per unit cell 共see Table I兲. In this case the concentration of the FM phase exceeds a percolating threshold value for an infinite FM clus-ter and the SPM-like effects cannot be observed.


We have measured microstructure, optical, transport, and magnetic properties of Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on single-crystal LaAlO3 共001兲 and SrTiO3 共011兲 substrates with additional annealing to relax the lattice strain. Our major results can be summarized as follows:

共1兲 The␪-2␪XRD scans and the HREM images reveal that the NSMO/LAO and NSMO/STO films have a perfect microstructure and a highly oriented crystal structure with关001兴 NSMO储关001兴 LAO and 关011兴 NSMO关011兴 STO epitaxial relationships, respectively. On the other hand, even though the Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films were

de-posited simultaneously on different substrates at the same deposition rate, they differ in thickness by a factor of ⯝

冑2. The observed difference is explained by the

two-dimensional共layer-by-layer兲 film growth rather than by a difference in the growth rate, controlled by the crys-tal orientation of substrate.

共2兲 The optical-density spectra show that the transmission is higher by nearly an order of magnitude for the NSMO/ LAO film than for the NSMO/STO film. This is ex-plained by an anisotropic origin of the Jahn–Teller inter-actions which leads to anisotropy of the polaron state in this compound. Moreover, the observed slight splitting of the central peak, corresponding to charge-transfer ex-citations from oxygen 2p-band states to bands involving manganese eg states near 3 eV, indicates that polaron gaps of⬃76 and 73 meV, for NSMO/STO and NSMO/ LAO, respectively, develop in the films.

共3兲 The R共T兲 curves measured for temperatures above the MI transition indicate a thermally activated behavior and can be described in terms of a small-polaron motion model with activation energies EA= 150 and 110 meV for NSMO/STO and NSMO/LAO, respectively. Since the polaron gap derived from the OD spectra is almost the same for both kinds of films, one can conclude that the observed anisotropy in the polaron motion is gov-erned by a strong anisotropy of the trapping energy rather than of the polaron formation energy.

共4兲 It was found that the observed dependence of the Curie temperature on thickness for the Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films deposited on SrTiO3 共011兲 and LaAlO3 共001兲 substrates is controlled by the sign and intensity of the accumulated lattice strain.

共5兲 Analysis of the magnetic properties shows that the Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3films can be treated as two-phase mag-netic systems, the magmag-netic properties of which are con-trolled by the competition between ferromagnetic double-exchange and antiferromagnetic superexchange. Magnetic phase segregation in FM and AFM clusters, which coexist for T艋TN, is confirmed by splitting of the measured ZFC/FC M共T兲 curves for different applied magnetic fields. In contrast to the bulk material22 and half-doped thin film,7in our case the AFM phase arises from a precursor paramagnetic state, rather than from the formed FM state. At the same time, the SPM-like clus-tering state occurs when the concentration of the FM phase does not exceed a percolating threshold value. The observed tendency of the共011兲-oriented films to undergo phase separation is explained by a smaller volume of the FM phase than in the共001兲-oriented films.

共6兲 A comprehensive analysis of the spin-glass-like and SPM approaches reveals that the deposited Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films should be regarded as an assem-bly of interacting magnetic clusters, quite similar to SPM particles with a dipolar interaction, at least in terms of their magnetic behavior.

This work was supported by the NRF/MEST through the Quantum Photonic Science Research Center, Korea.


V. Svetchnikov is grateful to the financial support of Nether-lands Institute for Metal Research.

a兲Email: pvg@imp.kiev.ua

1For a review, see Colossal Magnetoresistance, Charge Ordering and

Re-lated Properties of Manganese Oxides, C. N. R. Rao and B. Raveau共eds.兲, World Scientific, Singapore共1998兲; Colossal Magnetoresistance Oxides, Y. Tokura共ed.兲, Gordon and Breach, London 共1999兲; E. Dagotto, T. Hotta, and A. Moreo, Phys. Rep. 344, 1共2001兲.

2F. Tsui, M. C. Smoak, T. K. Nath, and C. B. Eom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,


3V. G. Prokhorov, G. G. Kaminsky, V. A. Komashko, Y. P. Lee, S. Y. Park,

Y. H. Hyun, J. B. Kim, J. S. Park, V. L. Svetchnikov, V. P. Pashchenko, and V. A. Khokhlov, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 33, 889共2007兲 关Low Temp. Phys.

33, 678共2007兲兴.

4V. G. Prokhorov, Y. H. Hyun, J. S. Park, J. B. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lee,

Y. P. Lee, and V. L. Svetchnikov, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 103901共2008兲.

5Y. H. Hyun, S. Y. Park, Y. P. Lee, V. G. Prokhorov, and V. L. Svetchnikov,

Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 262505共2007兲.

6R. Kajimoto, H. Yoshizawa, H. Kawano, H. Kuwahara, Y. Tokura, K.

Ohoyama, and M. Ohashi, Phys. Rev. B 60, 6506共1999兲.

7Y. Ogimoto, M. Nakamura, N. Takubo, H. Tamaru, M. Izumi, and K.

Miyano, Phys. Rev. B 71, 060403共2005兲.


M. J. Calderun, A. J. Millis, and K. H. Ahn, Phys. Rev. B 68, 100401 共2003兲.

9Q. Qian, T. A. Tyson, C.-C. Kao, W. Prellier, J. Bai, A. Biswas, and R. L.

Greene, Phys. Rev. B 63, 224424共2001兲.

10C. Cui, T. A. Tyson, Z. Chen, and Z. Zhong, Phys. Rev. B 68, 214417


11R. C. Yu, J. Tang, L. D. Yao, A. Matsushita, Y. Yu, F. Y. Li, and C. Q. Jin,

J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083910共2005兲.

12P. Levy, F. Parisi, G. Polla, D. Vega, G. Leyva, H. Lanza, R. S. Freitas,

and L. Ghivelder, Phys. Rev. B 62, 6437共2000兲.

13S. Dong, F. Gao, Z. Q. Wang, J. M. Liu, and Z. F. Ren, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 082508共2007兲.

14V. Ponnambalam, S. Parashar, A. R. Raju, and C. N. R. Rao, Appl. Phys.

Lett. 74, 206共1999兲.

15V. N. Varyukhin, Yu. V. Medvedev, Yu. M. Nikolaenko, A. B. Mukhin, B.

V. Belyaev, V. A. Gritskikh, I. V. Zhikharev, S. V. Kara-Murza, N. V. Korchikova, and A. A. Tikhii, Tech. Phys. Lett. 35, 937共2009兲.

16G. Tegze, L. Gránásy, G. I. Tyth, F. Podmaniczky, A. Jaatinen, T.

Ala-Nissila, and T. Pusztai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 035702共2009兲.

17J. A. Venables, G. D. T. Spiller, and M. Hanbücken, Rep. Prog. Phys. 47,


18A. Rusydi, R. Rauer, G. Neuber, M. Bastjan, I. Mahns, S. Müller, P.

Saichu, B. Schulz, S. G. Singer, A. I. Lichtenstein, D. Qi, X. Gao, X. Yu, A. T. S. Wee, G. Stryganyuk, K. Dörr, G. A. Sawatzky, S. L. Cooper, and M. Rübhausen, Phys. Rev. B 78, 125110共2008兲.

19M. Quijada, J. Černe, J. R. Simpson, H. D. Drew, K. H. Ahn, A. J. Millis,

R. Shreekala, R. Ramesh, M. Rajeswari, and T. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. B 58, 16093共1998兲.

20E. Iguchi, K. Ueda, and W. Jung, Phys. Rev. B 54, 17431共1996兲. 21P. Wagner, I. Gordon, L. Trappeniers, J. Vanacken, F. Herlach, V. V.

Mosh-chalkov, and Y. Bruynseraede, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3980共1998兲.

22Z. Q. Li, H. Liu, Y. H. Cheng, W. B. Mi, A. Yu, H. L. Bai, and E. I. Jiang,

Physica B 353, 324共2004兲.

23P. W. Kolb, D. B. Romero, H. D. Drew, Y. Moritomo, A. B. Souchkov,

and S. B. Ogale, Phys. Rev. B 70, 224415共2004兲.

24V. Eremenko, S. Gnatchenko, N. Makedonska, Yu. Shabakayeva, M.

Sh-vedun, V. Sirenko, J. Fink-Finowicki, K. V. Kamenev, G. Balakrishnan, and D. McK Paul, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 27, 1258共2001兲 关Low Temp. Phys.

27, 930共2001兲兴.

25Y. H. Hyun, J. S. Park, T. W. Eom, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lee, Y. P. Lee, V. G.

Prokhorov, and V. L. Svetchnikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 042515共2008兲.

26A. J. Millis, T. Darling, and A. Migliori, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1588共1998兲. 27V. G. Prokhorov, V. A. Komashko, G. G. Kaminsky, K. K. Yu, S. J. Jun,

S. Y. Park, J. S. Park, Y. P. Lee, and V. L. Svetchnikov, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 33, 78共2007兲 关Low Temp. Phys. 33, 58 共2007兲兴.

28Y. P. Lee, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Hyun, J. B. Kim, V. G. Prokhorov, V. A.

Komashko, and V. L. Svetchnikov, Phys. Rev. B 73, 224413共2006兲.

29I. O. Shklyarevskiy, M. Yu. Shvedun, S. L. Gnatchenko, P. J. M. van

Bentum, P. C. Cristianen, J. C. Maan, and K. V. Kamenev, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 27, 1250共2001兲 关Low Temp. Phys. 27, 923 共2001兲兴.

30F. Rivadulla, M. A. Lypez-Quitela, and J. Rivas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,


31J. R. L. de Almaida and D. J. Thouless, J. Phys. A 11, 983共1978兲. 32D. S. Fisher and D. A. Huse, Phys. Rev. B 38, 373共1988兲. 33L. Néel, C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 228, 664共1949兲. 34W. F. Brown, Phys. Rev. 130, 1677共1963兲.

35R. W. Chantrell and P. Wohlfarth, Phys. Status Solidi A 91, 619共1985兲. 36R. Skomski, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 841共2003兲.

37J. Du, B. Zhang, R. K. Zheng, and X. X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 75, 014415


38P. Allia, M. Coisson, P. Tiberto, F. Vinai, M. Knobel, M. A. Novak, and W.

C. Nunes, Phys. Rev. B 64, 144420共2001兲.

39O. Margeat, M. Tran, M. Spasova, and M. Farle, Phys. Rev. B 75, 134410


40P. Allia, F. Celegato, M. Coisson, A. Da Re, F. Ronconi, F. Spizzo, P.

Tiberto, and F. Vinai, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 290–291, 580共2005兲. This article was published in English in the original Russian journal. Repro-duced here with stylistic changes by AIP.


Powiązane dokumenty

The general quality of life was measured using a single-item self-report measure which asked the question “How would you rate your quality of life?”, with a 9-point response scale

Wybudowane przez bobry tamy przyczyniały się do spowolnienia ruchu wody, a co za tym idzie – jej odpływu ze zlewni.. W okresie późnozimowym i wczesnowiosennym, czyli w

Narrative representations of the communist period were created in the Karta exhibition entitled “Faces of Totalitarianism,” temporary exhibi- tions organized by the SocLand

Temperature dependence of the in-plane FC 共solid symbols兲 and ZFC 共open symbols兲 magnetization for the amorphous NSMO film, mea- sured at different applied magnetic fields.. Lines

共c兲 Normalized PL peak intensity vs illumination time for films of PbSe NCs on InP substrates measured in vacuum 共0.02 mbar兲, air 共1000 mbars兲, and at intermediate pressure

Resolution functions and AVP imprints 共a兲 for a target point located at 共x,y,z兲 ⳱ 共21.2,19,3.3兲 km in a one-dimensional subsurface, and 共b兲 in the Ziggy model, for a full

The minimization of the cost function U amounts to the absolute phase ␾ 0 共r, t兲 and the spatial-frequency components ␻ r 共r, t兲 and ␻ t 共r, t兲, all defined at the

Temperature field 共in K兲 in the entire chamber 共a兲, and zoomed in to the expansion-shock region 共b兲 and velocity field 共in m/s 兲 in the entire chamber 共c兲, and zoomed

The chemical potential of lysozyme in the fluid phase as a function of the ionic strength at pH 4.0 共diamonds兲, pH 4.5 共squares兲, and pH 5.4 共triangles兲 共see Fig.. The

The fiber stress is computed using two methods: the Fokker-Plank equation 共4兲 and the moment equation 共16兲 closed with EBOF200 关Eq.. Periodic

Contribution of core 共and valence兲 levels to the spin density at the nucleus, ␳ s c 共0兲 共in e/Å 3 兲, and, correspondingly, to the isotropic HFP’s, A iso c 共and A iso v

Rozważając moż- liwość odejścia od Arrhodesa, maszyna uświadamia sobie, iż Król może kontrolować ją najlżejszym gestem: „gdyby udało mi się wymknąć z tej

Właściwie nie wia- domo, czym się ci historycy literatury i krytycy literaccy kierują w swoich ocenach, bo trudno kierować się idiosynkrazjami: jednego lubić, drugie- go nie lubić

The relative change in resistivity due to the reduced magnetization calculated here, the DW spin-flip scattering [12], and the sum of both effects [15] as a function of the ratio

W dwóch cen- tralnych rozdziałach Ingardenowska filozofia języka i literatury w świetle filozofii lin- gwistycznej oraz Literatura w świecie aktów mowy wskazuje na podstawową

Na niechętny stosunek polskich historyków literatury do badania wpływów fi- lozofii niemieckiej na literaturę polskiego romantyzmu silnie oddziałały więc, krytyczne w dużej

Dobro, które znajduje swój wymiar w „złotym środku”, jednoznacznie łączy się z pożytkiem, zaś nadmiar dobra przeradza się w miękkość i flegmatyczność, czego

28 Przykładem na taki uproszczony sposób pokazywania rzeczywistości jest news wyemito-.. News powstaje jako reakcja na jakąś sytuację, wydarzenie, ale musi to być wydarzenie

Już opracowując topos filozofii jako ćwiczenia się w umieraniu, Montaigne zakwestionował tradycyjne, w tym wypadku platonizujące, rozumienie owego „umierania” i 

25,26 Fig- ure 3 shows the total electron and current densities 共left panel 兲 and the conditional wave functions 共right panel兲 of the double- 共a兲 and triple- 共b兲 vortex

Mean stress components using ␣ = 1 in Newtonian flow, computed with the particle method 共solid lines兲, moment approximation using subgrid model Eq.. 共15兲 共dashed lines兲,

The phases are 共a兲 the isotropic phase; 共b兲 the uniaxial prolate or oblate nematic phase; 共c兲 the biaxial phase; 共d兲 the tetrahedratic phase; 共e兲 the prolate or

O  zezwierzęceniu w  kon- tekście przejawiania skłonności do  zadawania cierpień bliźniemu pisze Smaga w cytowanym już tutaj tekście, zwracając uwagę, że choć