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Word in Education: Theory and Practice

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Articles in the Multidisciplinary Journal of School Education are available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0) license. The article deals with the intersection of verbal and non-verbal communication in a professional environment.

In general, contemporary hermeneutics can also be included in the humanistic orientation of adult education, insofar as the perspective of hermeneutics orbits around the idea of ​​"world-building" - the continuous development "of the understanding of the world, of others, of oneself and of understanding itself" (MacKenzie, 1991, p. viii), which is always irreducibly personal (see also: Welton, 1995). Therefore, such a phenomenological hermeneutic paradigm offers a way to investigate human experience and in terms of meaning, as it provides a specific description of the importance of human words as well as the importance of reflecting on them.

Used as an alternative to the quantitative approach to educational research, this paradigm indeed offers a variety of fruitful possibilities (Friesen et al., 2012; Bellingreri, 2016), especially insofar as it allows us to recognize the richness of life. world, the human search for meaning, and the importance of a first-person perspective as well as the narrative and intersubjective construction of personality. However, the above-mentioned ontological and anthropological presupposition of the hermeneutic phenomenological paradigm can also be discovered: the importance of understanding, the powerful role of narrative – that is, of words and dialogue – the prominence of personal lived experience and of others'.

Dolls Hospital, Elfie, Kio & Gus and Pixie. After reading such novels within their "community of inquiry," children and parents would raise questions and consider suggestions for answers. For example, when the main question was "What should I learn?", children said "to be autonomous and share with others", while parents said "to distinguish petting requests from anger". Another example could revolve around “Educational Needs and Needs”. In response to this section, children said “safety, belonging, confirmation, truth” (all of which are supposed to be provided by parents), but parents said “children need to be understood and have space to express their emotions ". Emotion certainly seems to be an essential word in the parents' account of their role, while caring for emotions is often recalled to describe an authentic and genuine educational relationship.

First, emotions and emotional well-being seem to be the primary concern of parents. We must be aware that this approach, as can be deduced from the words of parents about how to meet the needs of their children, reflects the "cult of emotions" (Lacroix, 2001) that is characteristic of our time and comes from a phenomenological perspective as a form of "psychologism". (Bruzzone, 2012).

Indeed, upon closer examination – which a phenomenological approach enables – each of us is revealed as a person who always needs to be recognized as well as to recognize – the former is easily recognized today in need of nurturing the affective sphere of our lives , the latter including the human need to have boundaries and rules and learn meanings to live as a person in communities with other persons. Specifically, they must be educated to understand that being a parent cannot be thought of in terms of functions, but must be perceived and realized as a personal responsibility.

The essence of essence: The search for meaning structures in the phenomenological analysis of lifeworld phenomena. The art and danger of questioning: Its place within philosophy for children and its philosophical history.

The methodological part includes the corpus of analyzed writings and the software tool that performed the analysis, as well as the goal of the research. Distance reading refers to processing the content (subjects, topics, people, places, etc.) or information about (date of publication, place, author, title) of a large number of textual elements without engaging in reading the actual text” (Drucker, 2013, p. 62).

This paper attempts to make a contribution to prove the potential of this distance reading approach by comparing the lexical frequencies of the two authors described in the next section. Morales drew on the formative influence of the Ignatian Spiritual Exercises to provide a spiritual backbone for these movements.

Laicos en Marcha [The Laity on the Move] (Madrid rd Spanish ed.): a series of encouraging principles to promote the apostolic action of the laity. Thus, he anticipated the teachings of Apostolicam Actuositatem (1965), the Decree of the Second Vatican Council on the Apostolate of the Laity.

It also provides data on the number of words (tokens) and different words (types) in the corpus. In the interface of the Word List tool (see Figure 1), the first column (Rank) shows the position of the word in the frequency list.

The first step in the analysis was to calculate the word list for each of the four tips using the software tool. For the second time, "vida" ["life"] is one of the most common words in all three books, which is why it is the word listed above.

Table 1. Words most frequently found  in Pope Francis’s apostolic exhortations
Table 1. Words most frequently found in Pope Francis’s apostolic exhortations

These references appear only in the latest edition of the trilogy, which was updated by Fr. Coincidentally, most of the words most often used by the two Jesuits can be observed.

However, “Computer tools do not do the thinking,” as stated in one of the screens of Wordsmith Tools, another software package for corpus analysis (Scott, 1996). Nevertheless, the results could only be interpreted in the light of the content and our knowledge of the authors.

The reach of the Church's teachings reaches every person and all dimensions of humanity. The educator of youth must beware of the temptation... to think that he must constantly say new things.

This seems possible due to the application of the concept of the body politic and the placement of Gothic imagery. The words they use often leave no imprint on the minds of the receivers and this seems to make them flawed or ineffective.

10 Conrad's fiction is generally perceived as being "concerned with a capacity for political vision" (Niland, as cited in Stape, 2015, p. 29). But in both cases the opposition between East and West seems to be a fundamental concept; indeed, the binary opposition is a core point around which Conrad's hatred of the Russian autocracy is revealed.

Presumably, Conrad expresses his stance on inappropriate language to pave the way for his own "adequate" commentary on politics: despite stigmatizing the printed word, later in the essay Conrad attempts his own interpretation through the mode of irony; Indeed, irony permeates the entire text of "Autocracy and War" and is one of the modes used in Conrad's later political essays, "A Note on the Polish Problem" (1916) and "The Crime of Partition" (1919). A contextual analysis of the essays certainly reveals that Conrad held onto the idea of ​​Russian weakness and lawlessness.

Since in this case I am particularly interested in non-fiction and the political essay genre, I will discuss only the sub-category – to which such discourse favors – namely 'stable irony' (Booth, 1974, pp. 1-31). Interestingly, in Conrad's political essays the "healing move" is facilitated, as indicated by the semantics of simple passages; in the latter, Conrad openly reveals his hatred of autocratic states, especially Russia.

However, Conrad's use of the concept of the body politic is idiosyncratic: the writer uses an exaggerated Gothic version, with his political essays examining and exploring a distorted version of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Body Politic. From the context it can be deduced that in this quote Europe is equated with “the Western world” (p. 53).

However, at the time of the essay's first publication, not all European states had officially recognized Poland's independence (Najder, 1983a, p. 436). Described using numerous metaphors, the "phantom of Russian power" becomes visible by virtue of explicit Gothic features and the use of the East-West binary.

As for the issue of binary oppositions, it was explored by Jacques Derrida; his findings are very useful in delineating Conrad's application of the East-West polarity in his prose. Much has been written about the potential sources of Conrad's consistent view of the world, based on the ideas of virtue and fidelity to traditional rules and codes of conduct (Skolik, 2009, pp.

In today's Poland - and probably in Europe as well - interest in Conrad's prose has declined due, in my opinion, to the fact that it is too simple and requires radical, often heroic actions and deeds. Contextualizing and Intertextualizing "Conrad's Imperialism": Reading "Heart of Darkness" Against His "Notes on Life and Letters" and Cormac McCarthy's "Blood Meridian."

He Was One of Us': The Polish Reception of Joseph Conrad Korzeniowski's Work. That natural happiness is buried under a storm of external stimuli and what Meister Eckhart called "the storm of inner thought." (Taylor, 2020, para. 16) 66.

Without reflection built in silence, "the knowledge gained in the learning process can be formed in an instrumental, explanatory way that serves the standardization goals" (Szymańska, 2020, p. 102), with nothing in common. with qualitative teaching and learning. They claim that it can be seen as “the entry into a state of neutrality with respect to stressors, stimuli or past memories.

In their writings, May Sarton ("one alone is never lonely") and William Wordsworth ("the bliss of solitude") were particularly eloquent in their praise of solitude. This perspective can be understood by referring to the material of the Carthusian Conferences entitled "The Wound of Love," where we can find that true silence is not the "one day" flower that is torn out as an embryo.

It can also promote the process of meditation and contemplation, designed in accordance with the thinking of Ignatius Loyola (Gallagher, 2015). Those who associate silence primarily with solitude and are vulnerable to constant external stimuli may become depressed.

This can be done in the middle of an activity or as an activity in itself. Purity of heart formed in silence and revealed in the world can be seen as an enemy, as silence is perceived by many in the world of noise.

Metaphysical/existential questions that occur in the hearts of monks are tested in the space of the heart, to which no one has access. What am I doing to master my personal and professional life in the aspect of the integrity of my being.

How reflective skills are taught and learned in schools at each stage of education. The question of the role of silence in mastering the reflective skills of a reflective practitioner can be seen as a kind of voice that calls for deeper reflection, stimulates the process of awareness, which implies the need to watch out for dangers arising from the core curriculum crammed with partner. - rial to be taught and learned.

The synthesis of this notion of the person, proposed in this article, is the result of an earlier, unpublished work on the religious dimension of the human being. The development of the concept of humans as beings open to reality has a long history.

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It is a necessary first level of relationship in which people exercise a certain dominion over things, a "dominion". Heidegger, for his part, presented a dimension of being with others that is not justified only by the simple evidence of the existence of human beings in the world, who must necessarily share the same space.

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Therefore, greetings are of great importance in all cultures, and there is a deep anthropological reason for this: they are an expression of the recognition of being in the presence of another person. Without believing in the value of the other, there can be no interest in knowing them, and therefore there can be no encounter.

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In this case, we will focus on the importance of the educator in terms of the presence of the student. Philosopher Zubiri believes that openness to others is one of the relevant aspects of human content.

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Communication has previously been referred to as a donation that one person can make to another; now we will develop it by concretizing it in the school context as an educational meeting place. Considering the different degrees of giving of the person when speaking, we can refer to a surface or social level, a personal level and a deep relational level.

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We will refer to the use of terms used individually by the educator in the classroom and other places, especially the teacher's room. This quality of people who embody their ability to learn becomes a reinforcement for the educator, as they know that the nature of the learner is positioned in their favor due to the natural aptitude to be educated.

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Thus, greater respect for the learner's dignity is considered, as we avoid closing doors to the possibility of real change in the learner. Education is about finding a difficult balance – no one said it would be easy – given the person's wealth and weakness.

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The tone of the greeting should be basic and simple when dealing with the recognition of others, as it is not just a measure of courtesy or good manners, but a way of showing others that we have made ourselves present to them , as already explained, that we recognize them and connect with them with our presence, rather than ignoring them. In this research we have considered some expressions that take place in the communication of educational encounters and we conclude by stating that they influence the recognition of the person, specifically the learner.

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The results of the study revealed that there is no significant relationship between teacher experience and student academic achievement. However, teachers' verbal encouragement has been shown to be a significant predictor of students' academic success.

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It is against this background that the researchers examine teachers' collective efficacy as a predictor of students' academic performance in north-central Nigeria. Collective efficacy is high if instructors believe they are adept at facilitating students' understanding of complex content, nurturing student creativity, and improving student academic achievement.

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Klem and Connell (2014) found that the biggest determinant of student learning success is the collective commitment of teachers, as it promotes student engagement and learning. Teachers have a significant impact on the academic success of students through dedicated responsiveness to their many learning approaches and abilities.

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The study used a longitudinal approach, and the results of the study showed that the use of incentive self-talk significantly improved the self-efficacy and performance of high school students, therefore providing supporting evidence for the intervening role of self-efficacy. . The results of the study showed that there was a significant positive difference between the high and low self-efficacy subjects and between men and women.

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H01: There is no significant relationship between teachers' experience and students' academic performance in public secondary schools in North Central Nigeria. H02: There is no significant relationship between teachers' verbal encouragement and students' academic performance in public senior secondary schools in North Central Nigeria.

111 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

H01: There is no significant relationship between the level of teachers' experience and students' academic performance in public secondary schools in North Central Nigeria. H03: There is no significant relationship between the level of teachers' academic emphasis and students' academic performance in public secondary schools in North Central Nigeria.

Table 2: Relationship between the level of teachers’
Table 2: Relationship between the level of teachers’

113 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

There was a significant relationship between teachers' verbal encouragement and students' academic performance in public senior secondary schools in North Central Nigeria. There was a significant relationship between teachers' academic emphasis and students' academic performance in public senior secondary schools in North Central Nigeria.

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School governing boards should assess the level of compliance of teachers with the implementation of collective efficacy issues through an effective supervisory technique. Future studies could use teacher experience to serve as a mediating variable that could be used to establish a link between teacher qualification and effectiveness.

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Meta-analysis of the relationship between collective efficacy and student achievement [Unpublished PhD thesis, Loyola University Chicago]. School environment and mastery experience as predictors of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs towards inclusive teaching.

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The key slogan of Manifesto 15 is "The school of Generation 1.0 cannot teach children of Generation 3.0. Many educational experts argue that schools should move to teaching "the four Cs" – critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity.

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They are not true to values ​​and their flexibility is affected by the speed of the internet (Skalická, 2018). According to demographers, this should be from the mid-1990s to the early years of the 21st century.

125 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

A four-component model of critical thinking and cognition (Ruisel, 2008) has come to the forefront of interest among experts. Instruction that enables the development of critical thinking emphasizes planning, suppression of impulsivity, and the use of situational and social contextual variables.

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The level of critical thinking among university students studying teaching in 2003 (2nd and 3rd years). The level of critical thinking in the sample of respondents who studied elementary education in 2018 (n = 60; the 2018 respondents) was 2,603 ​​points in the total raw score of the Watson-Glaser test.

129 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

When recognizing assumptions (what we assume or consider to be true, guaranteed and appropriate to a given situation; it is an opinion, a hypothesis or an assumption) they achieved an average of 10.1 points. The 2003 respondents achieved their highest average score (10.45 points) in argument evaluation (the ability to assess the value of arguments and distinguish which arguments are strong or weak with respect to the given problem).

Table 2. Level of critical thinking in university students studying primary education teaching in 2018 (4th year)
Table 2. Level of critical thinking in university students studying primary education teaching in 2018 (4th year)

131 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

Among the 2018 respondents, we recorded the second lowest value in the subtest deduction (8.08 points), which was 0.48 points lower than that of the 2003 respondents. Comparison of the points obtained in individual subtests and their order in the groups of respondents.

Table 3. Comparison of points obtained in individual subtests  and their order in the groups of respondents
Table 3. Comparison of points obtained in individual subtests and their order in the groups of respondents

133 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

The ability to think critically, according to the overall raw score of the Watson–Glaser test for the 2018 respondents (Generation Z/iGeneration) was 111 points lower than that of the 2003 respondents (Generation Y/Millennials) (Figure) 1). Based on the results, we can state that the ability of students to think critically has not increased between the generations.

135 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

In the study, we tested future teachers - university teaching students - to determine whether critical thinking improved over the course of 17 years, or saw an increase in the overall raw score on the Watson - Glaser Critical Thinking Evaluation Test. The mean scores in overall raw critical thinking and in the five subtests in Generation Z were actually lower relative to Generation Y.

137 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

However, there is a huge educational potential in video games that should not be ignored. This article presents a new proposal: What if we could use video games as a tool to teach history to teenagers.

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This may be one of the main goals, but it is not the most important. This is why the proper teaching of history happens to be key to guaranteeing a good future for our civilization.

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Of course, video games can fall under the umbrella of this definition, however they add some relevant elements. Video games do not need players to agree to terms, nor do they need a referee, as in most sports, in 144.

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If the player dies, they will have to go back to the last time they saved, and hours of progress may be lost. The player sees a world map and has a user interface that he uses to rule his dominions.

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Every aspect the player changes in the game – building a house, destroying a palace or betting on wheat exports – results in a change in the remaining aspects. Nevertheless, the game boundaries are only historically accurate at the beginning of the game (1444 AD).

Figure 3. 1444 map in Europa Universalis IV Source: Screenshot by this article author.
Figure 3. 1444 map in Europa Universalis IV Source: Screenshot by this article author.

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For each positive stability point, the country gains +1% in trade power, +5% in detecting foreign spies, -1 in national unrest, +5% in national taxes, +0.5% in missionary force, and +5% in spread of the institution. However, for each negative point of stability, the country will suffer several penalties, namely, -1% in trade power, -5% in detecting foreign spies, +2 in national unrest, -1 point of legitimacy per year and +1 % in interest.

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To reduce the number of options, it is suggested that each team choose a medium-sized country within the Holy Roman Empire. As shown above, this is quite a complex game; therefore, teachers must be familiar not only with the age the game recreates, but also with the rules and mechanics of the game.

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It is recommended that students form groups of three, as this is a complex game and cooperative learning is a key objective during the activity. It is recommended that on the first day they receive a set of questions that they must answer in a four-page composition.

155 REFLECTI ONS ON TEA CHING W ord in Education: Theory and Pr actice

In fact, both aspects of traditional education are quite present in the activity proposed in this article. The key to understanding why this can mean a change in motivation can be found in the very nature of video games.

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With the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and new ways of organizing work, this is even more important. In our fast-paced society, the use of speech has become a matter of great importance in professional activity.

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If we are willing to defend the intensive use of speech as a means of transformation, it must be done realistically, without overlooking real difficulties. The summary presented in the previous section aims to define the need for change in much of the inertia that still pervades professional life in businesses.

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The dissociation between the meaning of the word and the education that those preparing to lead, in education or professional training, is extremely significant. How this information is transmitted through links is something that must be considered in any analysis of the meaning of the word.

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The results of the study highlight two features related to word meaning. An example of the importance of this aspect in the transformation of people and organizations is described below.

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The conference was taking place within the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. To everyone's surprise, Mother Teresa of Calcutta – whom they had persuaded to attend the event – ​​came first in the rankings, well ahead of the person in second place.

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With technological acceleration, the distance between what a company is and what it should be has widened. Dissonance is a dissonance, a dissonance between what is and what "should" be, or between what is and what everyone assumes it is.

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It is important to highlight the everyday work carried out by mentors in the company that is outside of formal sessions, but that helps through reflection and the word. The effect of the word on management and entrepreneurship leaves no doubt about the necessity for mentors to progress in the correct use of conversations and conversations to bring 174.

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At this point it is worth emphasizing that silence, the absence of the word, must also be cultivated by managers, mentors, etc. If one of the pressing issues of our time is the transformation and adaptation of human teams, we urgently need to teach its use of the word as a tool.

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Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. How to do things with words”: The Discursive Dimension of Experiential Learning in Entrepreneurial Mentoring Dyads.

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Obraz

Table 1. Words most frequently found  in Pope Francis’s apostolic exhortations
Figure 1. Total frequencies in Pope Francis’s exhortations38
Figure 2. Total frequencies in Fr. Morales’s trilogy
Table 2. Words most frequently found  in Fr. Morales’s pedagogical trilogy
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