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Corrosion degradations


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Corrosion degradation

Jacek Banaś

University of Science and Technology (AGH-UST) Faculty of Foundry Engineering


Atmospheric corrosion

Photoinduced creation of oxidants:

nm 310 O O O3 + → * + 2


< • → + H O 2OH O* 2

OH* radicals can oxidize several species such as SO2, H2S, and NO2, a large fraction of radicals is consumed through reactions with hydrocarbon molecules, whereby one of the end products is the hydroperoxyl radical HO2*. 2 2 2 2 2 HO H O O HO• + • → + 4 2 OH , O H 2















2 2 2 2








3 OH , O H





• •



















Corrosion in water


a k ty w n y p rz e jśc io w y p rz e d p a s y w n y p a s y wn y obszary spadek potencjału iR redukcja tlenu Oxygen reduction passive range pH > 8 IR drop a ct ive in te rm e d ia te p re p a ssi ve Active range , pH < 7


FeOH+ Fe(OH)2 Fe O3 4 Fe O / Fe O / FeOOH3 4 2 3 redukcja tlenu


kor Oxygen reduction


Corrosion in water

pH = 5.75, Ecorr = -0.703




O – CO


– H



Energetic systems and power plants, oil–gas and petroleum industry,

geothermal systems,

high-level waste containers (HLW), pressurized water reactors (PWR) boiling water reactors (BWR),

heat exchangers,


CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN H2O – CO2 SYSTEM CO2 + H2O ⇔⇔ H2CO3 H2CO3⇔⇔⇔⇔ H2CO3 ad H2CO3 ad + e →→→→ HCO3- + H ad HCO3- + H 3O+→ H→→ 2CO3 + H2O Had + Had → H→→ 2


Cathodic reactions


Anodic reaction


Corrosion in water (H2O-CO2-H2S system) -1,2 -1,0 -0,8 -0,6 -0,4 -0,2 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 800C FeS2 FeCl2 aq FeCO 3 FeSO4 aq FeS HFeO2 -Fe2O3 E S H E , V -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 -1,6 -1,4 -1,2 5 Fe pH

Potential – pH diagram for Fe–thermal water system at the temperature of 800C (0.013M/dm3Cl-, 0.007M HCO


0.0002M HS-)

Activity of soluble products established as equal 10-6M/dm3,

and solid products as one.

SEM image (a) and X ray analysis (b) of the corrosion products on the surface of ST3S steel exposed in thermal water in Geotermia Podhalańska


Effect of CO


pressure on corrosion of

carbon steel in H


O – CO



de Waard – Milliamsa equation:

log V (mm/y) = 5.8 - 1710/T + 0.67 log (pCO2)

pCO2 – partial pressure in bar.

at high pressure the equation can be present in the form:

log V(mm/y) = 5.8 - 1710/T + 0.67 log (fCO2)

fCO2 = a ∗∗∗∗ pCO2 , where ” f” is the fungicity and „a” is the activity of CO2


Effect of CO2 pressure on the corrosion of carbon steel in the thermal water from Bańska (laboratory experiments)

J. Banaś, K. Banaś, B. Stypuła: Ochhrona przed Korozją 6, 136 (1991),

J. Banaś, J. Głownia, B. Stypuła, D. Walusiak: in: Atlas of the Geothermal Waters of Polish Lowland, ed. by Institute of Fossil Fuels, AGH, Cracow Poland 1990


Corrosion condition in H






S system

S H2


p / p 20 S H CO2 2 = 500 p / p = śro do wis ko kw aśn e środ owisk o mies zane Sour environment Mixed environment 2 CO


500 p / pCO H S 2 2 = ś środowisko słodkie środ o

Corrosion condition in H2O-CO2-H2S system defined by Post

B. F. M.Pots, R.C John, et al, Improvements on de-Waard Milliams Corrosion Prediction and Applications to Corrosion

Management, Paper #02235, CORROSION/2002


Polish geothermal power plants

Geotermia Pyrzyce 50 MJ/s Geotermia Stargard 14 MJ/s Geotermia Mazowiecka S.A. 7.3 MJ/s 680C 70 – 800C 400C 68 000 mg Cl- / dm3 9.4 mg Cl-/ dm3 Geotermia Podhalańska S.A. 70 MJ/s 7.3 MJ/s Geotermia Uniejów 2.6 MJ/s 80-900C 480 mg Cl-/ dm3


Anodic current in the passive range as a function of acid concentration.

Fe, Cr and Ni in H2SO4-H2O system

Corrosion in acid environments

Reductive behaviour: H2SO4 + H2O = H+ + HSO 4 -MOx/2 + xH+ = Mx+ + x/2H 2O MOx/2 + xH+ = Mx+ + x/2H 2O Oxidative behaviour: M + x/2H2SO4 = MOx/2 +x/2SO2 + x/2H2O 4 1 2O H H++++ 4 1 O H H 2 > >> > + ++ +


Metal corrosion in anhydrous organic media

The absence of water in the solution excludes the oxide formation on metal surface. The passivation process is possible only at the presence of the water or undissociated oxy-acid molecules.

Stability of low valency anodic product (Zn+, Cu+) is always greater in organic

environment than in aqueous medium.

Low dielectric permeability favours the formation of insoluble anodic product on the metals surface.

Frequently the strong inhibition of metal dissolution is observed at low

anodic overvoltage and stationary polarization curve shows characteristic “S” - shape.

Corrosion of metals proceeds very often locally on the defects of metal surface (kink, steps, grain boundaries). This effect is very good known in the metallographic praxis.


Passivation in mixed aqueous-organic solvents

The dependence of passivation potential of some metals on water activity in mixed aqueous-organic or concentrated electrolytes fulfils the Nernst equation for the reaction:

Me +




= MeO


+ nH


+ ne


















The passivation of metals proceeds according to the above mentioned reaction in electrolytes with the molar ratio of hydrogen ions to water :








At the higher ratio the water molecules are bound in hydration shell of

hydrogen ions and do not take part in anodic reaction as a source of oxygen ions


Effect of water

Passivation in mixed aqueous-organic solvents

Effect of water concentration on passivity of nickel in CH3OH−−−−1M H2SO4


Is the oxide formation possible in completely

anhydrous electrolytes?

Yes! At the presence other oxygen containing species, undergoing decomposition (reduction) on metal surface.

Undissociated oxy-acids molecules can passivate metal surface according to the mechanism:

Me + nROm/2  MeOn/2 + nRO+n/n

( m-n/n )/2 + ne


( m-n/n)/2 + ne  nRO( m-n/n)/2

_____________________________________ Me + nROm/2  MeOn/2 + nRO( m-n/n ) /2

The ROm/2 is a molecule containing oxygen, R means the nonmetal atom of +m valency (or the group of nonmetallic atoms with the exception of

oxygen) and “n “ is a stoichiometric number (the number of oxidant molecules)


In anhydrous solutions or in aqueous concentrated solutions the oxygen containing species - undissociated molecules of oxyacids ( H2SO4, H3PO4, HNO3, HCOOH ) play role of source of oxygen .

1) Passivation of chromium in anhydrous organic solutions of sulphuric acid: Cr + H2SO4  CrHSO4 ad + H+ + e


2) Passivation of iron in anhydrous formic acid solutions:

Passivation of metals in anhydrous environments

Fe + 2HCOOH  FeOOH + 2CO + 3H + + 2e

3) Passivation of iron in concentrated sulphuric acid: 2Fe + 3H2SO4  Fe 2O3 + 3H2SO3+2 + 6e

3H2SO3+2 + 6e  3H

2O + 3SO2

_______________________________________ Fe + 3H2SO4  Fe2O3 + 3H2O + 3SO2


Passivity of iron and nickel in anhydrous

solution of H




in DMF and formamide.


Corrosion of metals in anhydrous hydrocarbons

The rate of anodic dissolution of metals depends in these media on the structure and physicochemical properties of organic


Dielectric permittivity and donor or acceptor number determine the process of solvation and adsorption phenomena on metal the process of solvation and adsorption phenomena on metal surface.


The hydrocarbons, which are components of engine fuels and lubricants, are usually characterized by low permittivity and low conductivity. So, the process of corrosion in those media are proceeding at a very low rate.

The anodic reaction is strongly dependent on the structure of metal.

Corrosion of metals in hydrocarbons


The lower is permittivity of the medium, the more is the anodic reaction dependent on the work done by the metal to free from crystal lattice.

The metals of low lattice energy (the low melting point metals),e.g. copper and zinc, dissolve much easier than metals characterized by a higher lattice energy, e.g. ferrous metals.


DM F 75% DM F+25 %FA 50% DM F+50 %FA 25% DM F+75 %FA FA S1 S2 0,12 2,43 2,1 1,85 3,7 0,16 0,32 0,2 0,19 0,35 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 C o rr o si o n , m g /m ^ 2 d a y

C orrosion of iron and z in c i n N-dime thylformami de -formami de sol ve n t

(DMF-FA, i ron-80 days, z in c-5 days, 20C )

Fe Zn Fe Zn 75% DM F+25 %FA 50% DM F+50 %FA 25% DM F+75 %FA Zn


Corrosion of Zn-4%Al in petrol

Petrol Permittivity εεεε Resistivity ρ, ρ, ρ, ρ, Ω⋅Ω⋅Ω⋅Ω⋅cm Anodic current Corrosion µ µ µ µg /m2—day Ref. petrol 2.27 3.3—109 4 nA 5 Ethanol 3% Isobutanol 3% 3.31 5.9—107 7 µµµµA 302 Water0,159% DAC 4303 3.31 5.9—10 7 µµµµA 302 Ethanol 5% Water 0,102% 3,68 5.6—105 - 297 Methanol 3% Isobutanol 2% Water 0,03% 2,83 5,9—107 25 666


The addition of components increasing conductivity of organic medium, or components facilitating the solvation of metal cations increase the rate of corrosion.


Corrosion morphology of zinc and carbon steel in gasoline

Surface morfology of zinc after corrosion in gasoline

(30 days)

Surface morfology of carbon steel after corrosion in gasoline


Corrosion in soil


Point system for predicting soil corrosivity according to AWWA C-105 standard (American Water Works Association)

>10 points – protection of steel is


Microbiological induced corrosion (MIC)

SEM image of biofilm on steel coupons exposed in geothermal water (one month)


Thermodynamics of sulphate reduction


Kryspinów, pH = 5 - 5.5 diagram Fe+++ on Eh vs pH log activity main = -4.523 log activity Ca++ = -1.599 log activity Mg++ = -2.78 log activity Na+ = -1.256 log activity Cl- = -2.301 log activity HCO3- = -2.229 log activity HSO4- = -3.201

Reduction proceeds in cytoplasma according to the reaction: MIC – cathalysed reduction of sulphates


Katalizatory redukcji siarczanów korozja mikrobiologiczna Redukcja siarczanów jest możliwa dzięki ich aktywacji do czynnej formy jaką jest adenozyno-5-fosfosiarczan (APS). Redukcja jest procesem trójetapowym:

3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS)

Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)

Pyrophosphate (PPi)


Microbiological induced corrosion (MIC)

SEM image of biofilm on carbon steel exposed in geotehrmal water, in of Geotermia Stargard (salt water, 70C)


Equilibrium H


S – H



H2Sgaz ⇔⇔⇔⇔ H2Saq

H S⇔ H⇔⇔ + + HS

-H2Saq⇔ H⇔⇔ + + HS


The effect of hydrogen sulphide concentration in water on the corrosion rate of carbon steel.


The effect of H


S on hydrogen embrittlement

HIC – hydrogen induced cracking,

occurs in low- and high-strength steels even without external stress. Crack propagation proceeds paralell to surface.

Crack propagation proceeds paralell to surface. SSCC – sulphide stress corrosion cracking,

occurs in high-strength steels.


Parallel to surface perpendicular to surface

Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) of carbon steel (pipelines after 10 years exploitation in natural gas containing 4.5% H2S).


Mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement by stress iduced hydride formation.


Proposed mechanism for generalized


Accumulation of hydrogen as a gas at internal defects.

The pressure developed by this precipitation is added to the applied stress and thus lowers the apparent fracture stress. Evidence to support this early theory continues to be developed, particular for hydrogen assisted cracking in

H2S gas, where crack formation involves hydrogen precipitation as molecular

hydrogen at inclusion/matrix interfaces. hydrogen at inclusion/matrix interfaces.

Interaction of dissolved hydrogen to reduce the cohesive strength of the lattice.

Adsorption of hydrogen to reduce the surface energy required to form a crack and thus lower the fracture stress.


Corrosion (H++e→H )→→

Hydrogen embrittlement

Crack initiation → → → → →→→→ Crack propagation Hydrogen absorption Had→→→→HLattice Inclusions (elongated MnS) ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Anomalous structure Segregation of Mn and P ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Corrosion (H++e→H→→

ad) (elongated MnS) Segregation of Mn and P

•Alloy components •Coatings •Inhibitors ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑

•Low content of S and P

•Spheroidization of inclusions ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ •Heat treatment •Rolling conditions ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑


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