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Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Yacht Architecture '83, The 8th Biannual HISWA Symposium about Yacht Design, Yacht Building and Sailboards, 25-26 November 1983, Part 2

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P1983-5

SYMPOSIliatis

yACHT.

TECH NISCHE UNIVERSITEIT

Scheepshydromechanica Meketweg 2 - 2628 CD DELFT

Laboratorium voor

ARLHITECTUR

THE 8th BIANNUAL

HISWASYMPOSIUM

ABOUT YACHTDESIGN,

YACHTBUILDING AND SAILBOARDS,ORGANISED IN CONJUNCTION

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HIS WA-Symposium 1983

Under the auspices of: HISWA, Weesperstraat 93, 1018 VN Amsterdam, Holland and Waterkampioen and

WindSurfkampioen magazines, Postbus 93200, 2509 BA Den Haag,

Holland.

Publisher: Koninklijke Nederlandse Toeristenbond ANWB, Postbus 93200,

(4)

Friday 25th and Saturday 26th november 1983,

RAI-Congrescentrum Amsterdam, The Netherlands

8TH INTERNATIONAL HISWA SYMPOSIUM

ON DEVELOPMENTS OF INTEREST TO YACHT

ARCH ITECTU RE

LIST OF PAPERS

* K. Schat, IYRU Boardsailing committee

BOARDSAILING, RACING AND RULING Page 1

* James R. Drake, Physical and aerospace engineer

WINDSURFING PAST AND PRESENT Page 20

WINDSURFING FUTURE Page 42

* N. van Hoorn, Wayler Boardsailing

PRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF SURFBOARD MANUFACTURING Page 50

* H. Smits, Designer

HYDRODYNAMICS IN SAILBOARD DESIGN Page 69

* W.L.T. Thijs, Technological University Delft

(5)

-

Iv-Edited by a committee under the chairmanship of Prof. ir. J. Gerritsma

of the Ship-hydromechanics Laboratory of the Technological University Delft.

Members of the committee: G.W.W.C. Baron van Hoevell, W. de Vries Lentsch, van Beuningen, H. Martens, ing. D. Koopmans, ir. J.A. Keuning and G. Vis.

INTRODUCTION:

This symposium is organized under the auspices of HISWA, The Netherlands Assciation for Trade and Industry in the field of Shipbuilding and Aquatic

Sports in cooperation with Waterkampioen and WindSurfkampioen magazines.

This 8th symposium concerns subjects which are of interest to the

yacht-designer, the yachtbuilder, the technically interested yachtsman and surfer.

The first day is dedicated to the technical developments in yacht design

and yachtbuilding. The second day will feature windsurfing entirely.

The technical level of the papers has always been a matter of concern:

not too popular, bus also not too technical or scientific. It is important that the main points of the lectures can be understood by a larger group

than the exclusive experts.

The aim of the HISWA-symposia is to offer a possibility to exchange

knowledge and to stimulate discussion of the various aspects of the design,

the building and the use of yachts and sailboards.

(6)

Sailboard Racing

by ir K.Schat , member of the Racing Rules Committee and the

Board Sailing Committee of the International Yacht Racing Union.

Summary

Boardsailing is a new branch of yacht racing, attracting

a large new group of young people.

The free sail system of a sailboard, the great number of

types , the production in factories, the heavy commercial interest, the non traditional attitude of the sailors are new aspects, compared to traditional yachting.

In 1977 the International Yacht Racing Union installed a Board Sailing Committee. The major task of the committee is to guide boardsailing with international rules regarding sailboard classes and racing rules.

In 1980 Sailboard racing became an Olympic sport.

This paper is not a scientific article. It gives a survey of the development of boardsailing within the International

Yacht Racing Union .

Note : Because a meeting of the Board Sailing Committee of

the

I.Y.R.U.

falls in between the moment this paper was

written and the actual date of the symposium , some changes

or additions to the text might by necessary when the paper is presented.

(7)

Sailboard Racing

-2-Introduction

Although today other speakers have told you about the invention of the free sail system of the sailboard as such and a sailboard's technical properties, you might be interested to know that people living 400 to 500 years ago on the west coast of South America built rafts of balsa wood up to 20 meters long and sailed them by the same principle as sailboards, but in reverse.They had a big fixed sail and a series of a dozen or so daggerboards fore and aft along the center line of the boat and would raise one or more forward ones to bear away or after ones to luff.

A good friend in the United States who told me this, raised the

age old question : How new is new ?

Turning to my subject of sailboard racing I believe that it is sure that throughout history there has been always the ever

returning passion to challenge each other. Racing in wind

propelled boats is as old as people travelling on water. In this respect sailboard racing is also not new.

Nevertheless,boardsailing has quite some new aspects, compared to traditional yachting.

First of all the absence of a fixed mast and a rudder is a reason that boardsailing requires extra skill. Boardsailing is more acrobatic.

This extra dimension compared to traditional yachting,

contri-butes to the excitement of sailing a board and is a major item

in attracting the youth.

It is also a reason that other types of races, such as fun board events, evolved.

Another aspect is that boardsailing did not start like most

yacht racing in yachtclubs. The relatively cheap sailboard is

easy to transport and can be sailed on almost any small lake, wherever it may be.

Therefore,a new generation of sailing clubs is growing up at

places and with people where yachtclubs have never been before.

Not only new clubs came into being. Most of their members

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-.3-the rules of -.3-the game , etc.

However because sailboard racing can benefit from much of the

experience gained by traditional yacht racing, it was easy to

forecast that sooner or later they would come together in one

organisation in order to interchange and share experience and to

build up an effective way of controlling the sport at national and

international levels.

A further new aspect - although known from smaller dinghies like

the Laser - is the mass production of boards. Sailboards are

produced in factories by machines. And they exist in over a

hundred different types. Basically of the same principle,

but all with a different shape, dimensions, sail , etc.

This brings up another quite new aspect. The enormous commercial

interest, which is to a great extend the reason for the existence

of so any types of boards.

Boardsailing is for many young and even older people a new

sport, a new way of spending free time, a new way to go out on the water.

Therefore the market potential is big. This has been discovered

by many merchandizing people, who have taken a chance to capture

a good share of that market, either as a manufacturer or as a

dealer .

Last but not least the forementioned commercial interest was

also the reason that professionalism got new chances. Experienced

boardsailors can earn substantial amounts of money by sailing

prototypes . Races with money prizes have also been organised.

Sailboard Racing

After some introductionary considerations about the nature of

bcardsailing I now come-to the typical aspects of sailboard racing.

I want to divide these into the following chapters

Sailboard Races The organisation Sailboard Classes The rules of the game

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-4-Sailboard Races

Races for sailboards can be divided into two main categories races in which speed is the Most important element, like

races for traditional yachts ,

fun board events, in which only skill counts.

To the second category belongs what is called anfreestvle

compe-tition. Freestyle consists of a number of tricks , funny positions

of the sail and the board, real acrobatic. The scoring is based

on the degree of difficulty of the tricks and the choreography

in which the tricks are demonstrated. It has a similarity to

figure skating.

Another type belonging to this category is the slalom. Comparable to a slalom on waterskies, however at any time two competitors are racing against each other. A knock-out competition determines

the winner.

There are several more of these games. The interest is still growing. They are becoming part of many principal events.

In the USA a competition was also started consisting of triangle racing, a long distance event, freestyle, slalom and bouy ball, known as pentathlon.

However) the most important category is the first one I mentioned. Races in which speed is the major characteristic. Because

the course sailed is mostly similar to the Olympic triangle course, it is also called triangle racing.

The legs of the triangle and the total length of the course are

shorter than for traditional yachts.The standard length of the wind-ward leg for traditional yachts is 1,5 or 2 nautical miles,depending

on the type of yachts , for sailboards the length is 0.7 nautical

miles.

Of course other types of courses are also used. However, the

majority is a triangle.

A sailboard race on a triangle last about one hour.

At many regattas after a rest of a quarter to half an hour, the next race is sailed.

It happens also that when races are shorter in time, say 30 to 45

minutes, three to five races , called heats, are sailed one after

(10)

-5-The rules for how these races are organised and conducted are the same as for traditional yachts.

Specific for boardsailing is that at principal events like continental or world championships in recognized classes, the organising club)together with the manufacturer,do provide the

boards and sails , either free or rented.

It is easy to understand that this makes it rather simple to take part in these regattas. The number of competitors is sometimes a

few hundreds .

In most classes there exists three divisions, the heavy weigths, light weights and the ladies.

The organisation

Yacht racing and sailboard racing is a sport and a game. For a game you need rules.

Rules for the competitors and rules for the organizers.

The rules for the game basically consist of two chapters. A

set of Right of Way Rules originally based on the Merchant

Shipping Act,with some additions for how to organise and conduct

the races . And another set of class or rating rules for how

yachts can compete on equal terms.

For rules you need an international body and national authorities which take care that these rules are made and revised from time to

time, and also that all competitors know these rules.

Before I come to a few details , first some notes on the

organi-sation for traditional yacht racing.

It is generally accepted that yachting in privately owned yachts, did start in Holland and that yacht racing did start in England.

On the 1st of October 1661 the first race took place on the Thames. Competitors were two yachts of about 15 meter.The "Catharina" owned

by King Charles II and the "Anne" owned by his brother the Duke of

York. Both yachts were build according to the design of a yacht

"Marv", which in 1660 was a gift from the Dutch governement to King

Charles II.

The first yacht club , the Cork Waterclub, was founded in Ireland

in 1714, followed by the Cumberland Fleet, now the Royal Thames

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-6-It took almost 100 years before yacht clubs were founded in

other countries. To mention a few : Sweden in 1830, Germany

1835, USA , New York 1844. The Netherlands 1846, USSR St

Petersburg 1849, Canada 1852, France 1858, Australia 1862,

In 1907 the International Yacht Racing Union was founded.

Sailboard Racing is relatively young. It started in the USA

about 15 years ago. The history of boardsailing has still to be written.

However, sailboard racing could start on the basis of the

existing International Yacht Racing Rules of the

Internatio-nal Yacht Racing Union. Of course this was a big advantarje

for a rapid development of the sport.

Sailboard racing did start partly inside and to a great extend

outside the present international and national yachting unions or associations.

However,as I said earlier , it could be foreseen that sooner

or later traditional yachting and boardsailing would come

together because that would be for both the most effective

way.

This point is marked by the decision of the Int. Yacht Racing

Union taken in November 1977 to appoint a Board Sailing

Commit-tee to cover such matters as the application of the racing

rules, the policy of boardsailing, its administration, its

technical problems and the regulations imposed by various

autho-rities.

I must admit that I feel honoured to be a member of that committee since that time.

The first step made by this committee was to make an announcement

on boardsailing duringits first meeting at the New York Yacht Club in April 1978. This was also the first IYRU committee

meeting ever held in the USA.

The announcement was sent to all member countries,

internatio-nal class associations and the press known to be interested,

on June 23, 1978.

In short the contents was that sailboards being small and light

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-7-the IYRU concludes that sailboards are yachts in every sense.

And because the constitution of the IYRU contains that the

objects of the Union are the promotion of the sport of amateur

yachting throughout the world,the announcement made clear that

sailboards and yachts are an integral part of the international sport of yachting.

This statement was of primary importance.

Not only because it was of great help to all nations in which

processes Were running about the question if a sailboard is a

vessel yes or no, but also because it was,for the member countries, a sign to integrate boardsailing into their activities.

I believe it is of sufficient interest to you to mention a

few more of the most important decisions of the committee, which meets twice a year as an exception to most other

IYRU-committees who meet only in November of each year.

One of the first tasks for the committee was twofold. At first to agree about a policy for internationally recognized board classes and secondly to see which additional racing rules

would be necessary. Both of course were in the interest

of a solid basis for good international sailboard racing. As far as racing rules are concerned, very soon it became

apparent that some modifications were required for sailboards.

I will come back to this later.

An item of great importance was discussed during the mid year

meeting of the committee in Hamburg May 1979. The result of

this discussion was simple. The committee committed itself to

energetic and hard work to try to achieve Olympic status for

boards ailing.

With an unexpected speed the committee succeeded in arriving at this goal. In November of the same year 1979, the IYRU governing body, the Permament Committee, recorded that is was very much in favour of boardsailing being an Olympic event in 1984.

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-8-Olympic Committee decided during its meeting in Moscow that boardsailing would be an Olympic event in 1984.

The impact of this decision was enormous and very different in its effects.

Of course wherever before somebody had doubts as to whether boardsailing was or was not really yacht racing, this doubt was

removed by the IOC decision.

Boardsailing from now on was an accepted branch of yacht racing. For a number of countries it was also a new chance to take

part in the Olympics.

Secondly it was a big push for boardtailing . Because Olympic

status appeals to the imagination of a lot of sporting people.

Thirdly the competition between the various manufacturers did really start. Olympic status could be translated possibly into market share and money.

As usual in the IYRU,the election of the Olympic board was an item in which almost everybody took part. Long discussions

about the pros and cons of the various preferences took several,

sometimes emotional ,meetings. In November 1980 the Windglider

came through as the IYRU choice .

This decision was not the end but the beginning of a story. As

never before the IYRU got involved in enormous problems with the

Windsurfer patent. Especially because this patent originated from the same country as where the 1984 Olympics were scheduled.

For those who did not follow this history, at some time it was

rather close that the IOC would scrap the boardsailing event

from the Olympics.

I told you that the boardsailing committee started to work on Olympic status in 1979. As a result of a compromis in April 1983

the boardsailing events finally became safe. The IOC accepted that

after the awarding of the Olympic medals in the Windglider class an

exibition event will take place on the Windsurfer boards, composed

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-9-both men and women , selected from throughout the world under

the responsibility of the IYRU.

A real different subject for the committee was a more general

one , not specifically connected with sailboard racing.This

sub-ject was safety.

Safety in traffic on the water and safety of boardsailors for instance when going out to sea.

The safety in traffic was and is discussed widely by all those authorities who are dealing with watertraffic.

Although in most countries it is accepted that a sailboard is

a vessel, the existence of so many boards at places also with heavy

merchant traffic , did cause some serious problems on channels,

harbour entrances etc.

It was unavoidable that some restrictive legislation did come up.

The committee took this subject very serious and still does. It was resolved that if boards were established as a different category of craft or vessel,then there is a danger of boards being used as a precedent for rules which ultimately could affect all yachting.

Therefore,the chairman of the Boardsailing Committee did represent the committee at some meetings of international bodies like the European Economic Community and the Pleasure

Navigation International Joint Committee in order to present

the IYRU's view that sailboards are vessels and that

educa-tion was preferred above legislation.

As far as safety of boardsailors is concerned , it happens

that boardsailors insufficiently realize that going out on big lakes or on the sea involves dangerous risks. Coastguard

and rescue organisations report incidents regularly.

All this talk about safety has finally resulted in a Code of

Etiquette for boardsailors , which was distributed all over the

world in March 1980. Further a short code was also mailed,

It was suggested that this short code , in the form of an

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-10-Of course this safety and legislation item is a point on the

agenda of the committee from time to time.It is also a subject on which the cooperation of IYRU member associations is of great

importance.

After having said so much about the IYRU , in particular the

Boardsailing Committee, I have to mention that many more bodies are involved in sailboard racing.

There are the members of the IYRU, the national associations

called National Authorities . At this moment 78 in total.

Most of them have incorporated a subcommittee dealing with

boardsailing .

Further there are the international class owners associations

with their national divisions . These organisations are the

modern media in the communication with the sailors.

But of course there are the yachteclubs and the boardsailing

clubs associated with their National Authorities.

They all play an important role. However,I believe this is all known to you.

Sailboard Classes

Before speaking about sailboard classes it must be remembered that traditional yacht racing did start in yachts which were all different. So a handicap or rating system was required.

By the time series-production became possible, the interest for

standarized classes of yachts was growing and finally the

so called one designs became popular. Also because it makes

yacht racing really a game in which not the equipment but the skill of the crew is most important.

Of course I have to add that offshore racing is still done with yachts in a rating system. In offshore racing there are many

other exciting elements which makes this a real snort. But even there is a great interest in boat against boat racing like in the level rating classes.

The historical lesson of traditional yachts growing to

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Very soon the demand was raised for granting IYRU international status to an existing or new internationally spreaded sailboard

type.

However,it proved to be a very complicated matter. Reasons were Although some one designs were growing in popularity, the regio-nal and local fleets of those boards were rather small in many places.

Because of the existence of so many types of boards, most racing took place in so called open classes, in which all those different types could compete.

In many countries this is still the situation of today.

The windsurfer patent which was valid in a number of countries

and the licenses given , did restrict the choice of boards in

those countries.

Agreements with manufacturers of sailboards on the specification of their boards would be required. However,this was not as easy as it sounds.

The lively development of boards , their shapes and other

characteristics,is still a strong drive for manufacturers to upgrade boards very soon, bring out new types and so on. This makes it difficult to stabilize specifications.

The above considerations finally resulted in the adoption of three so called Divisions in November 1979. Being open classes including the existing well known one designs and other boards which were within specified dimensions.

Already during the time the specifications or class srules for these divisions were written,various changes had to be made. For instance after some time it was quite apparent that the relatively new displacement boards were very much faster than the flat boards. Therefore the first two divisions were redifined.

Today there are as said three divisions.

Division I has paramaters covering most if not all existing wide spread and popular boards. Also called flat boards.

Division II groups single masted displacement or deep V

boards and prototypes sailed by expert sailors . Therefore

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-12-Division III is for tandems, boards with more than one sail.

However a number of problems within these divisions have still to be solved.

Background : Equal chances on unequal material without a

handicap system, as tried in the divisions, will remain an

illusion.

The divisions can be seen as a reservoir or pool from which

a new international one design class can be picked as and

when the board has achieved good distribution and is raced in a good many countries.

However,during the period in which this was all happening, also three one-designs did receive international status. The Windsurfer and Windglider in the beginning of 1980 and the Mistral Compe-tition in November of 1980.

That the whole issue of classes is complicated is best illu-strated by the decision in November 1981 that

existing international one design classes are eligble to compete in Division I irrespective of whether they comply with the measurement rules.

However,with the exception, as followed in 1982, of the new

Superlight Mistral Competion .

National Authorities may authorise popular national classes

of boards to compete in Division I within their own country, whether or not the boards meet the requirements of the

measurement rules.

In 1982 the Board Sailing Committee recommended that there should be no international championship events for Division I.

This shows once again the original intention that the Divisions should be only the pools for new one-designs.

As you certainly will understand these divisions are a continious

point of deleberation for the committee.

Speaking about classes, it is neccessary to say a few words about the administration, measurement and registration of

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-13-those classes, because in this is hidden a fundamental point.

Generally, before entering a race it shall be clear that a

particular yacht or board is of the type and in accordance with

her class rules, as it is said that she is. For the reason that

races can not be sailed fairly without it is sure that the

competing yachts or boards are equal or - in case of offshore

yachts - it is known how they rate.

And at some time this has to be checked.

For this reason racing rule 19.1 prescribes that every yacht

entering a race shall hold a valid measurement or rating certificate.

For sailboards the certificate may be replaced by a numbered

and dated device on the board.

It is also a long established practice that the member National Authorities of the IYRU take care of the implementation of the

above rule. Either by measuring or checking yachts or boards

by themselves or by delegation to class associations or

appointed measurers. This practice is laid down in the second

part of rule 19.1 .

This practice is also easy to combine with the allocation of

a sailnumber by the National Authorty as ruled in racing

rule

25.

As a consequence of the above system, most National Authorities

keep a file of measured and checked yachts and boards plus the

allocated sailnumbers.

This is

called registration.

Now,with the growing number of sailboards, the large number of

types , for a number of

countries the system is starting to

give difficulties.

These difficulties are becoming bigger

, because

In general most boardsailors

are not aware of the fundamental

background that sailboards shall comply with their

class rules

- A number of sailors change boards frequently and are racing

in different classes

Not only mass produced boards exist. There are prototypes

also, produced in small quantities

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-14-Equipment like sails , masts, booms, etc. are changed from

one board to another,

Generally a personal saiinumber is used, allowed

by an amendment to racing rule 25.

Last but not least a number of countries use registration as a source of income. And because of the money involved some sailors either ignore or falsify the system.

Up to now the IYRU did follow the policy,as mentioned,that National Authorities could follow their own ways of

implemen-tation. It looks however, that this is no longer satisfactorily. A working party of the Board Sailing Committee is looking at

this problem.

Racing Rules

Once again I have to start first by referring to the general

principles already accepted long ago for traditional yacht racing.

At the start of yacht racing about two to three hundred years ago,

each fleet or club did have their own rules. These sailing rules

as the Right of Way Rules were called, were rather similar because they were based on the rules as used by the merchant

vessels.

The history of the racing rules is long and complex. The

founda-tion of the IYRU in 1907 was the first remarkable step for

inter-national unification. However, in the beginning the IYRU was almost

exclusively a European affair.The North American Yacht Racing Union,

the predecessor of the United States Yacht Racing Union and the

Canadian Yachting Association, although organized in 1897 was

slee-ping untill 1925. This union was not using the same rules all the time. For instance during the period 1948-1959 the NAYRU only was

applying the so called VanderBilt Rules, which after long

discus-sions were adopted by the IYRU in 1959.

The Racing Rules today comprise six parts with 78 rules in total.

These rules are prefaced by two fundamental rules on fair sailing

and responsibility. In the next issue of the racing rules in 1935

rule 58 Rendering Assistance will be added to these two.

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-15-I Definitions

II Management of Races III General Requirements IV Right of Way Rules V Other sailing rules

VI Protests, Penalties and Appeals .

The racing rules book contains also 10 appendices.

I will not speak about these rules in detail However,

unfornu-nately the fundamental starting points are not well known. So I

think it is worthwhile to mention them briefly because they are

of equal importance to sailboard racing as well.

The Yacht Racing Rules have been developed

to define the game of yacht racing ,

to garantee as much as possible safety by avoiding collisions

and

to take care that the game is fair and equity is maintained

These fundamental points have developed into four principles

regarding the Right of Way Rules, which are really basic. These are

1. The limitation of Right of Way.

The right of way is not unlimited. The right of way yacht has

priority but no more than that. For example , her alteration

of course is limited by rule 35(Limitations on Altering Course). 2. Time to Respond.

When , owing to a change in relationship between two yachts,

the right of way is tranferred from one yacht to the other

The yacht which originally held right of way shall be under no obligation to anticipate any such change in relationship,and The yacht which acquires right of way shall allow the other yacht ample room and opportunity to keep clear.

Rules 37.3 (Same Tack.-Basic Rule), 41.2 (Changing Tack -Tacking or Gybing), 42.3 (Limitations on Establishing and Maintaining an Overlap in the Vicinity of Marks and Obstructions) and 44 (Retur-ning to Start) refer.

3. Dual Liability

When yachts meet, both have responsibilities. The yacht which has to keep clear must do so. When she does not succeed, the right of way yacht must try to avoid a collision in accordance with rule 32 (Avoiding Collisions). When a collision occurs, it

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-16-may be that both yachts were at fault and therefore are both subject to a penalty.

4. Innocent Victim.

In certain situations involving three or more yachts, one of them may prevent another yacht from keeping clear of a third yacht. In

such circumstances, the yacht which was prevented from keeping clear may be exonerated as the Innocent Victim.

It is important to understand that the racing rules are set up for

all branches of yacht racing. From the smallest dinghy to the

biggest ocean racer. For club races and for offshore events.

Because it would be ridiculous to have different rules for different branches of yachting.

When special circumstances require special rules, they can

be put in the so called sailing instructions issued by the organizers

of the event. However , parts I and IV, the definitions and Right

of Way rules shall be unaltered and this applies all over the world.

As it has become clear during this day, a sailboard is a very

non-traditional yacht. For example a sailboard can rotate her mast

and sail . On which tack is a sailboard sailing with her sail

before the mast ?

A sailboard can sail backwards almost as easy as forwards.

And a sailboard can not be capsized, however her sail and mast can

fall into the water , either by purpose or by loss of control.

As said earlier,although sailboard races were starting on the basis of the IYRU racing rules, it soon became apparent that some

modifi-cations and additions were necessary.

The Board Sailing Committe of the IYRU has choosen the form of an

appendix , which is now known as appendix no 2. The introduction of

this appendix says that sailboard races shall be sailed under

the International Yacht Racing Rules modified as in the appendix.

The appendix comprises only a few rules, 7 in total, although some have more than one paragraph.

In short these are

A definition for leeward and windward, to avoid difficulties with funny positions of the sail.

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-17-This definition has just been changed. It now says that the windward side is the side where the wind is or was coming in. The other side is the leeward side.

This definition sounds surprisingly logical and simple. It is.

One could ask why it is not used for all yachts . The

answer is easy. It could very well, however ,the present

definition for leeward and windward in Part I of the Racing Rules

was based on the older Collision Regulations of the Sea.

The second patt of rule I says that a sailboard having her

sail in the water is considered as a capsized yacht.

Rule no 2 deals with a special arrangement for a board's measurement certificate, sailnumber,_advertisement,etc.

Furthermore ,the rule contains a paragraph that a sailboard does not require an anchor and that a class association could be

considered as a yachtclub if a boardsailor is unable to fulfil

the membership-rules 20 and 21 of the racing rules because where he lives is not a yacht club.

Rule no 3 has three paragraphs , which are additional to the

normal right of way rules.

Major points are that at the start of a race the sail of a

sailboard shall be out of the water and a sailboard sailing or

drifting backward shall keep clear of other sailboards starting correctly.

Rule 4 tells you that dragging a foot in the water in order

to stop the board is not allowed. This rule has just been changed.

Next year it is permissible.

Rule 5 says that a sailboard does not require to show a protest flag when she protests. A hail is sufficient.

Rule 6 deals with the 720 degree penalty rule, generally applied in sailboard racing.

Finally rule 7 comprises some minor points regarding multi-mast boards.

(23)

-18-From this short survey it is clear that sailboard racing is

governed by the same rules as traditional yacht racing with a very few not really important modifications.

I believe this is to the advantage of boardsailing and tradi-tional yachting. The boardsailor of today is possibly a boat-sailor tomorrow.

Speaking about the racing rules , I would not be up to date if

I did not mention some problems around rule 60 "Means of

propul-sionl Or in other words , the rule on pumping.

Once upon a time a vice president of the IYRU said that if we allow pumping we can close the doors of any stadium, fill it with water and put boats in. After the starting jun all boats start pumping as fast as they can. Who arrives first at the finish, is the winner. However, one thing is sure. This has nothing to do with the game called yacht racing.

I believe he is right. However because of the instability of

a sailboard, the free sail system with a swivel mounted mast and

the absence of a rudder, especially on waves many movements are

inherent to the sailing of a board as fast as possible. A number

of these movements are easily mistaken as pumping , rolling,etc.

Pumping and rolling of a sailboard is more restricted to what is

scooping the air by the sail or butterflying around the course.

I think it will take some time before the discussions around this subject come to an end. However, one thing is sure, any sailor, including a boardsailor,knows very well if he is doing something special which is really pumping.

Some notes

The fore mentioned point of pumping directs me to the first of my final remarks.

1. Boardsailing is rather new. Boardsailors are sportsman or

women, not quite familar with the traditional unwritten rules for yacht racing in general.

Therefore education is very important. The responsible yachting authorities should pay attention to the education of new board-sailors. Because sportmanship is the basis for fair races and

fun for the competitors .

(24)

-19-regional and local fleets are in an excellent position to work in this educational area.

2. My second remark deals with the development of sailboard classes.

In this region there are two religions.

One believes in the one designs. The other predicts that only open classes will have a future.

I am sure that in the near future open classes will attract the

most interest. However, I also believe that in the long run, when

a certain stabilisation has taken place in the development of sailboards, a rather slow self selecting process will finally result in a number of one design classes.

I think that there is no reason why boardsailing would take another way than traditional yachts in the past.

3.Finally the hot patato of amateurism and professionalism.

The general assembly of the IYRU in 1982 directed the Permament

Com-mittee to prepare a change of the constitution to the affect that

the Union becomes the controlling body of the sport of sailing in

all its forms throughout the world, however, remembering and under-standing that the IYRU's major trust is the promotion of the sport of amateur yachting.

This decision shows that the IYRU is carefully following the

development of professionalism and opening a door for it.

Of course,most of us know the hidden professionalism of top, sailors,

in offshore racing etc. However , in boardsailing with heavy

commercial interests, the chances for professionalism are still

greater. However,I am convinced that in the long run professionalism

will not reach the "grown-up" level.

Ladies and gentlemen I hope that my lecture has given you a good

view into sailboard racing.. One of the most fascinating sports I

know.

I thank you for your attention.

(25)

20

-WINDSURFING 1983 PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

PROLOGUE

In the short time since windsurfing was first born--16

to 25 years depending on how you count--the sport has become

exceedingly complex. A talk on the past, present and future

of windsurfing would require several hundred pages and the better part of a week if it were to be comprehensive.

Topics like (1) the patent situation and prospects, (2) the

Olympics and lessons learned for other forms of competition,

and (3) the roles and interdependence between the

manufacturers, the dealers and the customers would all need to be covered.

For example, the patent which will expire in 1988 is under strong attack as to its validity in all of the

countries that patent protection is afforded. A fair bet is

that it will be overturned in a majority of the cases. An

explanation of the bases of such challenges and an

assessment of their rationality is of great interest to many but would easily consume this entire talk.

I have chosen rather to treat the past, present and

future of windsurfing only from a technical or design

perspective. Even so it is bound to be a bit superficial.

The technical facets of a comparison between the windsurfer vs. the windglider--both to make their appearance next year

(26)

21

-in the Olympics--are too numerous and complex to be

adequately covered along with all the rest. I have elected

instead to describe each of the principal design types and

only with regard to their major features, i.e., board

design, sail size and shape, mast and booms, centerboard and

fin configuration and other pertinent details. Nonetheless

the progress from past to present gives the best insight into what the future holds.

THE PAST

A few years ago as a consequence of a patent action in Great Britian a man, Mr. Peter Chilvers, came forth and told of his constructing and sailing a small craft in 1958 which possesses all the essential features claimed by the patent.

It took place in a vacation region south of London when he

was a boy of 12. It was an event vividly recalled by his

mother, father and sister but unfortunately no permanent

record such as a photo or the craft itself survived. I have

met him and his family and found them to be entirely believable and so have the courts of Great Britain and

Canada.

As he describes it, the general configuration was as

shown on Figure 1. The board was 244 cm long, 76 cm wide

and 15 cm thick giving a total volume of about 184 1. It

was of hollow plywood construction and probably leaked

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23

-glued and nailed. The 1.7 m2 sail was triangular and set on

a 250 cm mast. Twin straight 140 cm booms straddled the

sail and were lashed together at both ends. The sail was

very small by today's standards but then he was a small boy

at the time. It was made from a canvas tent fly tacked to

the mast under a wood batten. The universal joint was made

from two interlocked screw eyes the lower one being free to

rotate in a wooden base plate. The large 2300 m2 Dagger

board extended 76 cm below the board. The fin or skeg was

formed by the rudder whose tiller was screwed into a fixed

position. Peter described his sailing the craft standing

upright with little difficulty, due no doubt to the small

sail area and generous beam. Used two seasons, it ended its

life ignominiously as a bridge across a small stream when

Peter probably turned his attention to something like cars

and girls.

Next along the trail was Mr. Newman Darby of Ohio. In

1965 he designed, built and offered for sale the unusual

craft shown in Figure 2. The board was rectangular 305 cm

long, 91 cm wide and about 6.5 cm thick. It probably

weighed close to 30 kg. Simple to build and stable, it made

almost no compromise in the direction of hydrodynamic

efficiency. The 3.4 m2 sail was kite shaped and stretched

on a 350 cm mast and 254 cm horizontal spar. These were

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-also stood spread-eagled and leaning backward. Again, very

little compromise toward aerodynamic efficiency. The 3000

cm2 daggerboard was 73 cm deep and while large in comparison

to the sail area was probably required by the slow speed

inherent in the design. No fin was used. It was not

patented but plans, kits and complete boats were advertised

for sale. It received publcity in magazines such as Popular

Science in the United States but did not achieve great commercial success.

Finally we come to Mr. Jim Drake, your lecturer, who in 1967 designed, built and tested a craft quaintly called "Old

Yeller" because of its yellow striped sail and a then

popular Disney movie. It looked like Figure 3 and without

doubt (or much humility on this author's part) formed the basis for the sport of windsurfing, sail boarding,

boardsailing or whatever term one likes. (I prefer

"windsurfing" because it was created specifically for the

apparatus shown on Figure 3. Bert Salisbury of Seattle was

the one who did so in late 1968.) It was the result of

discussions begun years earlier (1962) with a professional

colleague, Mr. Fred Payne, on designs which could combine the enjoyments of snow skiing, water skiing, surfing and

sailing without the need for snow, motor boats, surf and/or

enormous expense, respectively. Mr. Hoyle Schweitzer, a

social acquaintance, in 1967 added the ingredients of

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-spark first here in Europe then in Hawaii, Japan and Australia and only now on mainland USA.

"Old Yeller" as can be seen was remarkably like the

current offerings by manufacturers in the so-called "entry

level" market--that means beginners. That could be due to

the talent or luck of its designer, but I attribute it

mostly to imitation and lack of initiative. (A far better

beginner's board could and should be offered. But that is

for later.) "Old Yeller" was 350 cm long, 71 cm wide, 11.5

cm thick with a total volume of about 170 1. The board was

constructed with the then and still current surfboard technology, i.e., fiberglass reinforced polyester resin

shaped on a foam core. Its lines were similar to tandem

surfboards of that era. The 5.2 m2 triangular sail was set

on a 427 cm hollow tapered fiberglass mast. The curved

"wish bone" booms were 260 cm long and made from laminated

pine. They were joined to the mast and to themselves with a

complicated (and quickly abandoned) arrangement of straps

and lines. The 1400 cm2 dagger board was sized with

aero/hydrodynamic considerations in mind, but was designed

to be cut conveniently from a piece of 1 x 10 Philippine

mahogany that was located in the author's garage/shop.

Mast, universal joint and daggerboard were joined in one

assembly. Later the mast base was moved forward to a

(33)

28

-300 cm2. The lanyard to uphaul the sail was added after the

first test when the designer discovered that he had

neglected to consider how the sail was to be raised so that the ride could begin.

Looking back, I think it was the strong desire to

simplify to the limit that determined the unique arrangement and I think that getting so much out of so little is

responsible for the sport's appeal. Standing is preferred

to sitting for most active sports. The fully articulated

sail eliminates the rudder and tiller and also uncouples the attitude of the board from the set of the sail leaving both

free to assume their best posture. Holding the sail directly

by the booms eliminates all standing, running, and most

traditional rigging. All this may explain why marine

hardware stores and boat merchandizers generally do not feature sailboards.

Also I am a little surprised that this configuration had not been created earlier since all of the required

technological and social factors

had

been present for many

years. Without a doubt however, the, sport would have

eventually been developed in much like its current form with

or without the help of the author, Hoyle, Fred, Newman or

Peter.

THE PRESENT

The first ten years after that morning in Marina del Rey

(34)

29

-200 m saw no really major design alterations. The boards

came to be manufactured with roto-molded polyurethane* for

reasons of cost and durability. Plastics gradually replaced

certain other materials that were first selected by the author for the convenience of his one-off construction

program. But nothing really changed too much.

In the last five years or so, however, designs have

branched into several specialized directions. The most

important four are: (1) recreational boards which serve the

majority of the sport and all of its beginners, (2) regatta

boards which appeal to those whose interest is in

yachting-type competition, (3) "Pan Am" boards which supply a highly

skilled few with the fastest long-distance designs and (4)

wave boards which give an equally small number the means to

enjoy true surfing and jumping.

The recreational board is a large, stable (and heavy) no-surprise board suited to the widest range of wind speeds

and wave conditions. This type is typified by

the Wayler manufactured in The Netherlands, made noteworthy by its

relatively low price and stable reliable design. Shown on

Figure 4, it has a length of 382 cm, a width of 68 cm and a

thickness of 16.2 cm. Total volume of the board is 258 1

A technique also well-suited to the manufacture of

trash

barrels and though many of my friends would prefer

I not say

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31

-and weight is 22 kg. When the rig is added total weight

amounts to about 30 kg. That is heavy but typical of this

type.

Sail area is modest at 5.9 m2 and other usually smaller

sizes are offered. The tapered fiberglass mast is 450 cm

high; the bent aluminum booms are 261 cm long. This length

booms makes the rig less handy but avoids the need for

battens in the sail. The dagger board is 1500 cm2 plastic

and extends 50 cm below the board. The fin is about 150 cm2

and also plastic. In fact, everything is plastic except the

aluminum booms if you count dacron as plastic. The

advantages of plastics used for recreation boards in cost

and producability lead to economy but their generally inferior structural characteristics leads to high weight.

Recreational boards are offered by all major

manufacturers like Hyfly, BIC, Windsurfer, Mistral Marker,

Fanatic, Alpha, etc. They are all similar in performance

and differ only in details such as the mast step (most

annoying when one would like to mix rigs) and the center

board retraction scheme. None except Windsurfer offer an

adequate instruction or beginners board. Windsurfer has its

Star which is wide (about 80 cm) not too long (about

300 cm)

but really heavy (over 23 kg). The use of polystyrene foam

and fiberglass reinforced epoxy could halve that weight and

make everlasting friendships with pupils.

(37)

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33

-racing are of two kinds: one design and open class. Both

terms are borrowed from their yacht racing cousins. One

design means strict adherence to one set of dimensions and

specifications with the objective of having absolutely

identical units. So far, and at least for a while, these

have been manufacturer's designs, principally Windsurfer,

Windglider and Mistral. Windglider, the IYRU selection for

the Olympic triangle competition in Long Beach this coming

summer, is shown on Figure 5. The board is on the long

side, 290 cm, slightly narrow, 65.5 cm, moderately thick 14.5 cm, with ample volume 250 1 and a bit heavy, 25 kg.

The sail is 6.3 m2 set on a 462 cm mast and 270 cm booms.

The center board is 1470 m2 and the fin is 180 cm2.

Construction techniques tend toward the low cost variety.

The Windsurfer one design, the largest one-design fleet

in the world will also participate in the 1984 Olympics in

two demonstration events, slalom and free style. Its

arrangement is pictured in Figure 6 and is seen to be a

slight degree smaller all around.

The second general type of regatta board so called

open-class boards, is governed by a set of design rules set

forth by the IYRU that allow a degree of variation between

competing designs. These rules tend to be fairly

restrictive however, and open-class does not mean really

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35

-ones being Division I and Division II. Division I is highly

restrictive, permits only "flat" boards and limits the area

and configuration of the sail and the length and width of

the board. The intention was and is to promote racing

between a number of different manufactured types and

home-builts of modest cost. The Windglider one design is also a

good example of a Division I open class.

Division II is slightly less restrictive in that it

allows "round" bottom boards but otherwise is tightly

controlled. These designs require more skill and expense

and are substantially faster around a triangle course than Division I.

"Pan Am" boards are the thoroughbred unlimited speed

merchants of long-distance racing on either triangle or

irregular courses. They are named after the world cup races

sponsored by Pan American Airlines* held in past years

during late March in Kailua, Hawaii. (A discouraging lack

of wind in these events has caused a change to late July and

to the north shore for the 1984 event.) A typical current

arrangement of a Pan Am board is shown on Figure 7. Being

largely unrestricted, the boards can be as long and slender

The Pan Am World Cup is likely to be shouldered

aside by

the Funboard Series, sponsored by a number of sailboard

manufacturers. This series features long reaching

races

with a minimum of up-wind beating. This year the preferred

designs are similar to "Pan Am" designs. It is likely that

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37

-as the rider can control in the open ocean where waves can

be "double mast high." They need long flat and moderately

wide runs aft to promote early planning and fine lines

forward to lessen being stopped by chop and smaller waves.

The illustrated board is 400 am long 63.5 cm wide and 15 cm

deep, and features a mast foot track that allows perhaps 50

cm of rapid adjustment during the race itself. The

centerboard can be completely retracted with the opening

sealed by a flexible but stiff membrane. Numerous foot

straps are located all over the deck, wherever the sea

conditions and point of sail dictate the feet should be.

Foot straps give enormous stability and confidence. Even

with all these features and volume of over 200 1 the board

will typically weigh less than 15 kg. Sail area is as large

as the rider can handle. About 7.0* m2 would be advised for

race minimum wind conditions--15 knots is the usual minimum.

Masts reach to the 500 cm category and are made as stiff as

possible to reduce sail shape variability with wind speed.

Booms are in the 200 cm to 250 cm region and also as stiff

as possible. Harness lines, attached to the booms engage a

vest mounted quick release hook worn by the rider. The

harness in conjunction with footstraps greatly reduces the *Sail areas for PanAm boards (funboards) and waveboards are

notoriously overstated by their manufacturers, sometimes as

much as 15%. There is no need for them to be precise since

there are no competitive restrictions on sail

area. It does

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39

-stress and strain on the rider, increasing his endurance.

Thus they are equally applicable to recreational boards for

intermediate or advanced riders. Centerboards like sails

vary in size depending on the wind. A minimum wind

centerboard is around 900 cm2 and a high wind centerboard is

about 600 cm2 or less. The fin is abut 300 cm2.

Centerboards and fins are both as high an aspect ratio as

can be controlled.

Now we come to the most exciting boards of all for both

participant and spectator alike: the waveboard. I

mentioned earlier that at present the waveboard rider is in

a small minority. This is only partly because of the skill

level required (which will undoubtedly get better with time)

but also because the equipment being specialized and often

custom made is expensive. While it is perfectly possible to

live your life out with only one custom wave board and one rig, once you are hooked you "need" two or more boards, three or more sails and almost as many matching masts and

booms. It is not considered extravagant at all to invest

over $3,000 US in wave equipment. I think this barrier,

like skill level,

will

erode with time.

Figure 8 shows two of many sizes and shapes of wave

boards. The larger is called a "floater" since it is able

to support a standing rider up-hauling his sail--but just

barely. It would be appropriate for

(45)

40

-Any less is usually not judged to be much fun by the

waveboard rider anyhow. And if the wind dies to a few

knots, a floater can get you home unlike the smaller

board--appropriately called a "sinker." Sinkers are more exciting,

maneuverable and challenging but require more wind--15 knots is barely adequate, 20 knots is much better, 25 knots is a

real joy.

Both floaters and sinkers have come around to shapes

and lines that are similar to contemporary surfboards but just

expanded a bit. A floater would be about 290 um long, 60 cm

wide and 9.5 cm thick and well tapered toward the nose and

tail. Total volume is under 100 1 and the board,

footstraps, skeg and mast mark can weigh about 10 kg. The

light weight and small size alone is enough to convert one from a 20 kg 380 cm recreational board to at least a floater.

A sinker is even smaller but requires substantially greater

skill in marginal conditions. 220 cm long, 55 cm wide and

8.5 cm thick is a good example. A total volume of about 60

1 tells one why it is a sinker. But then it can weigh

as little as 7 kg.

Sails* are of any size from 3.0 m2 to almost 7.0 m2 to

permit sailing in a wide range of wind support. A "35 knot"

rule-of-thumb has gained support. It states that a 35 knot

The reader is reminded of the caution given earlier on the actual size of the sails.

(46)

41

-wind warrants a 35 ft2 sail; more -wind, less sail; less

wind, more sail. It takes 15 knots to call for a 7.0 m2

sail. Much less wind than that and the heavy awkward rig

becomes work not fun.

Masts are between 440 cm and 500 cm tall, strong and flexible enough to survive being tumbled in surf and rocks.

Booms are 170 cm to 220 cm, as short as possible for agility

and to clear the water during maneuvers. A few years ago

the fashion was to ward "fat head" or "Maui" sails having a large full battened head and a pronounced hollow leach.

Short booms and aerodynamics have forced a trend toward a

more balanced roach though still with a pronounced amount of area high up that helps water starts (much preferred to

up-haul starts) and hiked out stability and control. Of

course, foot straps and harnesses are required--the former also keeps the board and rider from parting company on a wave jump.

Centerboards are eliminated and thus a wave board's

windward capability is limited. Lateral resistance comes

from the fin and lateral forces on the bottom of the board

forward near the water entry point. This configuration

makes the board highly susceptable to "spin out" caused

either by the fin's low speed stalling or high speed

ventilation (or cavitation). A great deal of trial and

(47)

42

-theory about fin design. Fences, footballs, wingers,

channel bottoms, thrusters are terms referring to various

schools of thought on fin design. The only reasonably

established principle is that about 300 cm2 of total fin

area is needed when the fin is about 25 cm deep. More area

is required, if the fin is shallower or if the area is

divided into more than one fin.

One can see now that these four major types of boards--recreational, regatta, PanAm and wave--are very different

from each other. This is because different people have

different interests. Fortunately the potential of the sport

is broad enough to accommodate these and perhaps others not yet developed.

THE FUTURE

With a brief description of where the sport began and where it is, it is time to speculate on trends for the

future. It takes almost no courage to predict that the sport

will grow in popularity and will bring along with it a number of related industries like apparel, resorts and

probably the windsurfing equivalent or a ski lift, that is,

a means of transporting people and rigs upwind or offshore to particularly special areas like sandbars and islands.

The commercial aspects are not what this section is about,

however, important though they are. I will try to sketch

some of the technical trends in boards sails, equipment and

(48)

43

-First of all the boards must and will become lighter.

It is technically possible today to produce a 10 kg board even

in recreational sizes. It is just not economical yet in

other than the custom market. Materials such a polystyrene

foam, epoxy resins, kevlar and carbon fibers as well as our old friend aluminum are all high strength, light weight and

relatively inexpensive in their raw form. But fabrication

is labor intensive. Thus low cost and light weight will

come through highly capitalized heavily tooled industry once the market shows clear signals of expansion to the level of the skiing industry.

Board shapes will also change. The recreational field

will tend to follow both the PanAm (aka. funboard) designs

and wave board trends. That means finer lines fore and aft,

less volume and just enough width to provide stability.

Recreational boards will become more tailored to the

individual in terms of their volume, length and width, much

like skis are today.

Regatta boards will be dominated by rules which in turn

will become an intensified battleground between the rule makers and the rule beaters, at times overshadowing the

actual competition. Technology (and money) is most always

on the side of the rule beaters so I think we have a long and lively war to look forward to.

Sails, masts and booms now show a trend toward

(49)

44

-They, like boards, will also aim at a nominal 10 kg and

become stiffer and handier. Mast pockets will increase in

depth to perhaps 30 cm with perhaps a light weight bladder

to keep water out. This will improve the sail's drive by

lessening the mast's tendency to spoil the leading edge

leeward low pressure peak. Full span flexible battens will

reinforce the sails natural profile and will stabilize the luff as well as stiffen a moderate and well-balanced roach.

Booms will continue to shorten until the sail's twist

becomes excessive.

A trend I would like to see is the elimination of all ropes

and lines and I mean all--up-haul, in-haul, out-haul and down-haul--only harness lines do I consider essential and

they should be changed to a durable and slippery vinyl

covered wire. The up-haul can perhaps be eliminated through

better instruction in water-starts and beach starts and

maybe through some equipment changes. Whoever is successful

in forever consigning the up-haul to antiquity will be given

a Nobel prize. The in-haul is not needed if the booms are

mounted behind the mast rather then in front. Out-hauls and

down-hauls can be replaced by a suitably designed levers that

might be carried with the rig or might be separate.

A branch of the sport which has not yet emerged is that

of cruising or touring (to use the bicyclist's term.) This

(50)

45

-certainly develop to some degree over the next ten years or

so. The boards will be long and slender with moderate

volume and incorporating waterproof storage, auxiliary

inflatable floatation and a variety of navigation and safety

features. Sails, masts and booms will be designed to

accommodate from 3.0 m2 to perhaps 8.0 m2. A single

straight telescopic boom that is tacked through a slit in the sail might be preferred to the standard wishbone on the

basis of weight, storability and adjustability. Cruising

or touring will probably develop first in places like the Mediterranean and the East Indies where the ocean is

relatively placid and where there are attractive but not too

rugged destinations. More adventuresome itineraries will

follow, as confidence grows and equipment improves.

Finally, I want to describe three examples of radically

new concepts that are examples of some which have a chance of augmenting, influencing but not supplantine the general

board-mast-sail-boom arrangement as it exists today.

Whether they become successful or not depends on a number of technical issues that requires innovation if not invention and on certain untested physical capabilities of the human

body that can not be predicted with certainity. For lack

of better terms I will call these new concepts the air-oar,

the out-rigger and the wing. All three are sketched on

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47

-The air-oar is a tall slender sail that is designed

from the start to be pumped in zero to light winds--which

are the vast majority of conditions as most windsurfers know.

It will borrow some features of a bird's wing which is what

it emulates. A curved leading edge brings the aerodynamic

center and center of gravity above the pivot point. It will

articulate fore and aft for control and for propulsive

efficiency. It could even be coupled laterally with the

center board to add both propulsion and stability.

The out-rigger merely moves the mast base to a separate

but much smaller board having a volume of perhaps 20 1. The

mast is longer and the sail is larger and always inclined to

windward. The lift provided by the large sail compensates

for the drag of the separate out rigger by reducing the drag

of the main board--except in low winds. The main board may

even take on some features of a water ski such as single position foot straps or bindings.

The wing is a hand-glider like apparatus but smaller

and with more pronounced dihedral (or vee-shape looking

nose-on). Total wing/sail area is larger than the equivalent

windsurfing sail. It is held along the centerline boom (or

other convenient spar) with both hands and perhaps a

harness. Trim is maintained as usual by pulling on the back

hand. Positioning the wing in roll, however, is done by

rotating the boom like the spoke of an automobile steering

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