• Nie Znaleziono Wyników

Open Education with OER (OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES) Ecosystem


Academic year: 2021

Share "Open Education with OER (OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES) Ecosystem"


Pełen tekst


Open Education with OER (OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES) Ecosystem

Carmelo Branimir España -Villegas, Manuel Caeiro-Rodriguez

University of Vigo, Telecomunication E.E.

Vigo, Spain

carmelobranimir@gmail.com, mcaeiro@gist.uvigo.es

Abstract –

Nowadays, Information and Communication Technologies are becoming necessary in all types of organizations. That common occurrence makes it possible for people to be integrated into digital environments that require skills and constant updating. This man - technology relationship, makes the concept of Ecosystem to be adopted into educational technological field. Open education, e-learning, sharing open source or open source applications, open access research and open educational resources are becoming a worldwide trend. In this article we establish the relationship between Ecosystems, Open Education and OER (Open Educational Resources). We describe web initiatives to represent the OER Ecosystem and we present the InnovaREA model by using TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) as a basis. This proposal will be a methodological contribution what will help to improve the adaptation of the open education model through the OER ecosystem.

Keywords—Open Educational Resources; OER Ecosystem; Innovation; Adoption; Information and Communication Technologies

I. I


During these last years, in the studies on educational

technology the term ecosystem has been used in education with

several emerging concepts, such as: educational ecosystem,

digital ecosystem, digital learning ecosystem, technological

ecosystems, ecosystem of Open Educational Resources, etc.

The demands of the current knowledge society are

becoming increasingly noticeable in the socio-educational

world, where teacher with the support of ICT becomes the

essential axis to face these demands. However, there are several

factors that directly affect the degree of pedagogical use of

ICTs and OERs, hindering the path towards educational

innovation and towards the transition of the new role that the

educator must assume.

Given the advances and changes in Information and





technological competences, open education, new educational

environments, tools and paradigms, it is necessary to group and

define definitions, which will allow teachers to innovate with

open education models such as OER.

In this paper, the relationship between Ecosystems, Open

Education and OER (Open Educational Resources) is


It describes web initiatives to familiarize with the world of

OER Ecosystem and presents the INNOVA REA model using

TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) as the basis.

This methodological input will contribute to improve

educational policies, to know the technological components of

open education, to the OER Ecosystem, to train in ICT skills

and to be able to efficiently develop contents and innovate with

the educational model open through the OER ecosystem.



The different concepts of ecosystem are related to

pedagogical and technological tendencies, since now not only

the learning is limited to a physical structure, but is also a part

of society, family, governments, educators, in an increasingly

more complex context by available means and trends.

In [1] the concept of a biological ecosystem that has been

used for some time to describe adaptive software systems,

production environments, reuse and adaptation of contents, all

called digital ecosystems and is also used in education

A. Biological Ecosystem [2]

In biology, the set of biotic elements (living beings) and

abiotic elements (soil, water, light, minerals, etc.) are referred

to as interacting with each other.

These relationships occur in a specific place and delimited

from the rest of the environment, and are able to assimilate the

matter-energy that is produced so that different species of living

beings can develop and self-replicate. This space is called

habitat. Living beings must fulfill their life cycle (be born,

develop, reproduce and die) under the interactions with the rest

of the living and non-living beings of the habitat in which they

are immersed, producing changes, adaptations and evolutions

to their species to achieve (or not) fulfilling its life cycle

It is important to emphasize that the feedback cycle

between species and context makes the species adapt to the

context, but also make the context change due to the species. If

this feedback is maintained for a certain time, then there is an

evolutionary effect of the species and the context

B. Digital Learning Ecosystem

In [2] it is indicated that the concept of Digital Learning

Ecosystem is defined as a particular type of digital ecosystem,

and is based on the metaphor of biology systems. It is currently

presented as the paradigm of future education systems,

supported by information and communication technologies


Illustration 1 Evolution Digital Ecosystem

C. Educational Ecosystem

Regarding the educational ecosystem, in [3] it is argued that

the ability to form a system depends on the existence of social

interconnections between that system and others. All levels of

the proposed ecological model depend on each other and,

therefore, it requires a joint participation of different contexts

and a communication between them, as shown in

Illustration 2


Illustration 2 Educational Ecosystem

D. Technological Ecosystem

Technological ecosystems are a general framework for

developing any kind of technological solution in which data and

information are the focus of the problem. [5]

In technological ecosystems for learning it goes a step

beyond the mere collection of fashion tools to create a true

network of learning services. [6]

The evolution that has had the technological ecosystem can

be seen in the following

Illustration 3


Illustration 3 Evolution Technological Ecosystem

E. Open Education

The digital age has opened up countless ways for the

diffusion of knowledge, one of the most effective forms is Open

Access, a main objective is to build modern knowledge

societies in which people can participate in information and

knowledge (UNESCO)

In [7], the author defines open education as a philosophy

about the way people produce, share, and build knowledge.

At the same time, open education should provide freedom

for everyone to modify and use educational materials so that the

same community continues to share information to small and

large audiences, a philosophy shared with Open Educational


Open education allows higher education to rethink its

approaches to teaching and learning. [8]

• The pedagogical use of ICTs

In the current educational environment, the use of ICT is

crucial, as they are being used daily by individuals and


The direct and indirect influence in all professional and

personal work is undeniable, however, and despite efforts by

different institutions and governments, these are not yet present

in accordance with the needs and expectation in the educational


Despite the fact that surveys are favorable for inclusion,

there are barriers that have not yet been transferred and

sometimes see ICT as a threat rather than as an aid. There is a

lack of information, promotion and training, evidenced in the

research presented in [8]

To the concept of ICT, the education includes TLK

(Technologies for Learning and Knowledge). [8]

• What are ICT (Information and Communication

Technologies) and TLKs (Technologies for Learning and


ICT & TLK, mention the "educational use of information

and communication technologies more frequently in the

academic world".











It can be indicated on the basis of the reviewed research that

Open Educational Resources interact with the different

Ecosystems and Open Education, creating a conjunction

presented in

Illustration 4

Illustration 4 Conjunction Open Education-Ecosystems-OER

However the diversity of concepts, it makes the

implementation complex despite important efforts of different

organizations [8].

A. Open Educational Resources

As early as 1994, we began with the term learning objects

named so by Wayne Hodgins with the idea that digital materials

can be designed to allow easy reuse in a wide range of teaching

and learning situations. [9]

The OER movement originated from the evolution of Open

Distance Education (ODE) and in the broader context of open

culture, open source, free exchange and peer collaboration,

which emerged in the late twentieth century [9], OER and Free

/ Open Source Software (FLOSS), have many aspects in

common, concepts used by David Wiley in 1998 who

introduced the concept of open content by analogy with open

source [10].

MIT Open Course Ware


is credited with having unleashed

the worldwide movement pro OER in 2001, after announcing

that it would offer its entire course catalog and the launch of

this project in 2002.

In a first manifestation of this movement, MIT made an

alliance with Utah State University, where Associate Professor

of Educational Technology David Wiley created a peer support

network for OCW (Open Course Ware) content distribution,

through voluntary communities of self-organization of


The term "Open Educational Resources" was first adopted

in 2002 at the UNESCO Forum on the Impact of Open Courses

in Higher Education in Developing Countries.



In 2005 the Center for Educational Research and Innovation

(CERI) of the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation

and Development) launched a study. The report "Giving

knowledge for free: The emergence of open educational

resources", published in May 2007, is the main outcome of the

project, involving a series of experts gathered in 2006.

In September 2007, the Open Society Institute and the

Shuttleworth Foundation at the meeting of experts presented

the "Cape Town Declaration of Open Education" [11],

published on January 22, 2008, urging governments and

publishers to make materials be financed with available public

funds and at no cost through the Internet.

Since UNESCO and the Commonwealth of Learning

published 2012 "Guidelines for Open Educational Resources

(OER) in Higher Education" [12], a number of promotional

actions have been undertaken.

In December 2015, the OECD study "Open Educational

Resources - A Catalyst for Innovation, Educational Research

and Innovation" [13] was published, which provides an

overview of the advances in OER and its use today.

It indicates that the industrialized countries have clear

policies to promote the use of OERs in their respective

education systems. It shows the potential and possibilities of

use, teacher - student interaction and the possibility of access

from anywhere in the world to an education of quality [14], an

aspect that must be replicated to the developing countries and

recent changes in its educational policy. [14]

This year, the OER's pioneers, activists and researchers met

again in Cape Town at the Open Education Global

Conference 2017


. It analyzed the achievements of the last

decade and the progress made, and reiterated the importance for

the fulfillment of the "Open Education Declaration of Cape

Town" after 10 years.

The Open Education Consortium project is an important

element of the OER Ecosystem, which is where many

universities in the world are affiliated, allowing access to

courses, repositories, different educational material, and

providing the necessary support to those with membership.

There are currently 46 member countries of the consortium. In

the case of Spain, 22 universities belong to the consortium



In the OER World Map


, a very important compilation is

made on the global movement of Open Educational Resources

in the world, information on personal endeavors, organizations,

services, projects and global events in this regard, a summary

is shown in the

Illustration 5

Illustration 5 OER initiatives around the world

3http://www.oeconsortium.org/members/country/Spain/ 4https://oerworldmap.org/


B. General considerations for the formation of the Open

Educational Resources System

CEDEC (National Center of Curricular Development in

non-proprietary systems)


indicates that the open educational

resources are called to be the fundamental elements in the

development of free educational contents in years to come.

Resources, contents, open courses, specific repositories,

MOOC, etc. are all part of this new ecosystem that according

to many indicators of the Horizon Report: 2013 Higher

Education, will be the main axis of the education system. [15]

In this complex educational ecosystem, and with constant

emerging technologies, the Horizon Report 2015 Higher

Education [16] describes trends, challenges and technologies

that are a challenge for researchers. A summary of the Horizont

2015 report is available on the website of the CENT (Center

d'Educació i Noves Tecnologies de la Universitat Jaume I)



Through the different research readings, [17] [5] [9] [8] it

can be indicated that it is agreed that it is necessary to consider

in this environment the following elements:


Key trends that accelerate the adoption of educational

technology in universities.

✓ The evolution of online learning.

✓ Retreatment of learning spaces.

✓ Open educational resources.

✓ Data-based learning and assessment.

✓ Agile change strategies.

✓ Open communities and university consortiums.


Significant challenges for the adoption of educational

technology in universities

✓ Digital literacy.

✓ Mix formal and informal learning

✓ Complex thinking and communication.

✓ Integration of personalized learning.

✓ The competition for new educational models.

✓ Lack of incentives for teaching.


Major developments in educational technology for


✓ Bring your Own Device (BYOD, "bring your

own" device).

✓ Inverted class (flipped classroom).

✓ Maker spaces (creative workshops).

✓ Wearable technology.

✓ Adaptive learning technologies.

✓ The Internet of Things (IoT).

5 http://cedec.educalab.es/es/noticias-de-portada/1585-ecosistemas-de-recursos-educativos-abiertos-camino-de-la-innovacion

C. Evolution Exosystem Open Educational Resources

Understanding the evolution of the OER Ecosystem, its

characteristics, the interrelation with platforms, social






development paths and sustainability will be essential to build

environments that favor creation, diffusion, adaptation, reuse,

mixing and redistribution.

The OER concept is generated from:

The statements of Richard Stallman, the FSF (free

software foundation), free software and their GPL and

GDFL licenses: "... The material licensed under it is freely

available and can be copied, redistributed, modified and

even sold as long as the material is kept under the terms

of this same license and distributed in a format that

guarantees future editions and must include the original

text or source code”.

• The Open Content analogy by David Wiley (1998) and

the 4R Framework (Reuse - Revise - Remix -


✓ Reuse - the right to reuse content in its literal form.

✓ Review - the right to adapt, adjust, modify or alter

the content itself.

✓ Remix - the right to combine original or revised

content with other content to create something


✓ Redistribute - the right to share copies of the

original content, revisions, or remixes with others.

• From the trend that emerged in the late 1990s about the

information and knowledge society: "... The pluralistic

concept of knowledge societies goes beyond the

information society, as it points to social, cultural and

economic transformations in support for sustainable

development. The pillars of knowledge societies are

access to information for all, freedom of expression and

linguistic diversity”. (UNESCO)

Open Educational Resources, integrated with all

components of the ecosystem should allow users to access,

copy, modify, redistribute without any restriction or limited

restriction [18].

D. Classification and Elements of Open Educational


OERs are a generic denominator that includes courses and

curricula, didactic modules, student guides, textbooks, research

articles, videos, podcasts, evaluation tools, interactive materials

(such as simulations), databases, software, applications (

including mobile applications) and any other educational

material designed for use in teaching and learning (OECD,


In this sense, they should not be confused with the contents

of the OpenCourseWare (OCW) project, which is a set of high


quality educational materials organized in courses, often

including planning and evaluation tools, and which would

therefore be a specific type of OER. [18]

A widespread classification of OER establishes the

following types:

Educational content: complete courses (educational

programs), course materials, content modules, learning

objects, textbooks, multimedia materials (text, sound,

video, images, animations), exams, compilations,

periodicals magazines), etc.

• Tools: Software to support the creation, delivery (access),

use and improvement of open educational content. This

includes tools and systems to: create content, record and

organize content; manage learning and develop online

learning communities.

• Implementation resources: Intellectual property licenses

that promote the open publication of materials; design

principles; adaptation and localization of content; and

materials or techniques to support access to knowledge.

Generally, those who create OER allow anyone to use their

materials, modify them, translate or improve them, and share

them with others. It should be noted that some licenses restrict

modifications (derivative works) or commercial use.

Each element of the OER Ecosystem has sub-elements that

can be investigated independently.

However, in order to adopt OER technology, it is necessary

to deepen technical concepts, policies, contents, production of

materials, technology, etc. and provide teachers with models of

technology adoption models, verifiable and supported by

computer systems for their validation. [17]

All this environment of OER Ecosystem are represented in

a bibliometric study [19], which complemented by emerging

technologies and other research, allows to describe the different

aspects that are part of this complex Ecosystem. We present a

summary of the different components of the OER Ecosystem in

Tabla 1

Tabla 1 Proposed Ecosystem of Open Educational Resources based on Bibliometric and OER Classification [20]









Legal Issues

Theoretical concepts OER search engines Repositories


Adaptation of the OER / REMIX

Teacher Training

Laws, legal

Reviews Open formats OER assessment

Collaborative-learning. Collaborative production

OER administration


Interoperability Adoption by

universities / teachers

Digitization of materials

Institutional Policies

Licences / Creative


Metadata Repositories implementation

Games Declaration

Instruments Surveys on the perception of OER

Models, Frameworks and Metodologies

Public policies

Ontology OER uses Courses, MOOC’s

Tools Digital competences Experiencies Repositories Free Software Semantic web Emerging technologies for education Devices

In the next Tabla 2, some specialized sites are presented for

OER showing content, tools and implementation resources [20]

(Translated and supplemented during the research process)

Tabla 2 (Initiatives Open Education, OER - Educational Content, Tools, Implementation Resources )







Teachers Without Borders


It aims to improve education in the world, supported by local teachers mainly. Xpert


OER Repository of the University of Nottingham JORUM repository


OER repository produced by the UK. It accepts contributions from around the world



African Virtual University (AVU) is a government organization with the goal of expanding access to quality higher education. OERs are available in 3 languages: English, Portuguese and French.

Open Learning Iniciative (OLI)


Maintained by Carnegie Mellon University, OLI aims to create high quality courses for both students and faculty.

Community College Consortium dor Educational Resources


The aim of the community is to raise awareness and support the use of OER.

Curriki for K-12


Community for teachers and students with different resources for the use of OER

Objets Educational Brazil Bank (BIOE)


Brazilian repository with public access educational resources



Learning Objects Repository MERLOT


MERLOT is an on-line community oriented to share scientific articles, learning materials, among others specific for/or higher education (REINEHR, 2012). Unesp Open


The State University of São Paulo offers free courses, without evaluation, pedagogical advice and certification.

Directory of Open Access Journals


Repository of open access scientific publications. Open Access Repository Creative Commons


Open Licensing Use licenses

Free Sound


Repository of free access of varied sounds Sound repository Wikibooks


It has a set of manuals and free texts. Book repository Project Gutenberg


Free eBooks available Commonwealth of Learning


Intergovernmental institution committed to the creation and use of OER, it develops policies and advice on OER.

Organizations William and Flora Hewlett Foundation


Institution that finances projects to improve education worldwide. It makes donations to support institutions that develop and work with OER.

Financial sources TEMOA


It is an academic portal, developed by the Technological Institute of Higher Studies of Monterrey, which serves to search for REA in Latin America and the world through the Web.

OER search engines Global Learning Objects Brokering Exchange


Learning Resources Search Engine Open Courseware Consortium – Search of courses


Search for Open Courseware courses CommonWealth Connects Portal: Directory of Open

Education Resources


OER Search Portal

Google OCW/OER Search

https://www.google.com/cse/home?cx=0007934 06067725335231:fm2ncznoswy

Google search system for OpenCourseWare and OER

Free Learning


Access to educational resources that are available in the world (books, etc.), it is intended free education

Open Tapestry


Open Tapestry is a tool for searching, adapting and sharing resources. Learning Resource Exchange (LRE)


It is a service that allows schools to find educational content from various countries and providers. It was developed with the aim of offering ministries of education access to a network of educational content repositories and related tools, allowing them an easier exchange of high-quality educational resources that are "mobile" and can be used by teachers in different countries.

Word Cat


System of location of resources in libraries. Class Central



ReCourse Learning Design Editor

http://tencompetence- project.bolton.ac.uk/ldauthor/

Open source tool created by IMS Learning Design for the production of learning units.

FLOSS Tools (Free / Open Source Software) eLML - eLesson Markup Language


Framework for creating structured lessons using XML. Moodle


LMS(Learning Management System) Claroline


It is a FLOSS LMS that allows you to easily implement an online learning and collaboration platform.



Used for video editing Dokeos


LMS Open Source LRM


LMS open source used to support e-learning and digital communities. Atutor


LMS Open Source. Content and course manager, accessible social network. Olat


LMS Open Source. Software developed by the University of Zurich. "The goal of OLAT is that knowledge must be shared, simple to share in all places, at all times and for all."



LMS open source. Adopt a paragraph


Open project developed by Juliano Spyer with the purpose of translating into Portuguese and having availability on the text web about communication and internet.

Co-creation environment Universia


Consortium of OpenCourseWare institutions of Spanish and Portuguese language

Open CourseWare Open Courseware Consortium


Consortium that brings together educational institutions to advance the development of Open CourseWare and the impact for Global education in the world.



Utah State University offers a collection of REA used in formal courses. Unicamp OCW


Administered by the State University of Campinas, the portal has the purpose of hosting educational content originating from disciplines of the institution's graduation courses.

China Open Resources for Education (CORE) consortium


Consortium of Chinese Universities working with OER

MIT Open Courseware


Main portal that started with the OER movement since the 2001 management.

Japanese OCW Consortium


Japan OCW Consortium Open Course Library


Collection of high quality courses Miríada X


Platform of MOOC's Ibero-American that aims to promote the knowledge in open in the regional scope of the Higher Education

MOOCS Coursera


Education company offering free and massive online courses MOOCS Academy Earth


It was created to bring the knowledge generated in universities to all the people of the world. Traditional classrooms are videotaped and shared as OER in a portal. Universities in Berkeley, Columbia, Georgetown, Harvard, Michigan, MIT, Princeton, Stanford, UCLA, Yale and others are part of this project.

Video Repositories Classes / Courses e-Aulas USP http://eaulas.usp.br/portal/home

This new service expresses the recognition by the University that one of its functions is the dissemination of knowledge, allowing teachers to broadcast their videos of the classes, and students to access video classes from various disciplines of USP. It is open and accessible to the public.

Khan Academy


It was founded in 2004 by Salman Khan and managed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the project offers more than 3,000 video classes in areas such as mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry, among many others in Portuguese. Udemy


Udemy (Academy of you), it enables anyone to learn and create online courses. Shred Academy





Platform for the production of collaborative content Repository, authoring system and content manager OER Commons http://www.oercommons.org/

Repositories that accept contributions for free from all over the world.



Tool whose objective is the creation of slides, diagrams, evaluations and organize contents collaboratively.



Open Education Project which offers MOOC and its platform allows anyone to create and share their course for free.



System that allows a group of people to develop, share or use educational resources.



It is a repository and an educational content management system. Le Mill


Community dedicated to search, create and share OER. REFRER


French-speaking network of open educational resources



Edu-AREA, open web space with resources and plans to innovate in teaching.


https://pt.wikiversity.org/wiki/P%C3%A1gina_pr incipal

Free courses platform H2O


Developed by Harvard University, this online class tool allows you to create, contextualize and share books, texts, audio, images, videos, creative commons PDF files.

Portal Scielo Books


It contains online publications of scientific articles published by institutions of higher learning.

Repository of scientific publications Faculty Project


Professors of the most renowned universities, offer free courses of the most varied areas.

Classroom / Course Repository Instrutable


Online documentation platform in which people share what they do and how they do it.



A platform that offers courses in digital format, where the contents are presented in a fun and practical way.

The National Repository of Online Courses (NROC)


Courses in OER format of the Monterey Institute of Technology

LibriVox http://librivox.org Public domain free audio repository Digital

libraries, repositories College Open Textbooks


Repository of didactic books Livro Didático Público


Project of the Secretary of Education of the State of Paraná involved in the production and dissemination of textbooks for non-commercial purposes. Wiki Educator


Created by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL), Wiki Educator is a discussion group on OER focused on collaboration.

Communities of Practice National Library of Spain

http://www.bne.es/es/Servicios/FuentesI nformacion/BibliotecasDigitales/

Link to important digital libraries, repositories and collectors such as: Hispana, Ibero-American Heritage Digital Library, CSIC Virtual Library, etc.

Digital libraries, repositories and collectors OER Knowledge Cloud


OER Knowledge Cloud enables the identification, collection, preservation and dissemination of available documents to assess the level of research, industry, government, students, writers, scientists and informal teachers

OER Community and Repository Mediateca of the University of Vigo


Uvigo-TV is an Internet television service provided by the Information Technology and Communications Area (ICTA) of the Vice-Rectorate of New Technologies and Quality of the University of Vigo.

Media library (videos and courses) Educational Space Procomun


Procomun allows access to the repository of open educational digital resources (REA) of the Ministry and the Autonomous Communities, which brings together didactic material cataloged in a standardized way through metadata (LOM-ES)

Open Educational Resources Repository









Based on the study carried out in [8] and [17], although

there are different tools and software that allows the inclusion

of ICTs in education, more proposals and technical and

pedagogical efforts are required.

TAM was originally conceived as a predictive model,

whose initial purpose was to anticipate the behavior that a user

might have against a technological resource [21]. In this case,

its application does not pursue a predictive but rather

explanatory purpose. That is to say, to explain a given behavior

that is manifested by the current degree of utilization of ICT &


The InnovaREA methodology is proposed in

Illustration 7

which uses the TAM innovation model (Illustration) for the


promotion and technological innovation of teachers for the

adoption of the OER open education model

Illustration 6 TAM Final versión [22]

Illustration 7 DFD Level 1 – InnovaREA Model

V. C


The article describes different concepts and the relationship

between ecosystems, open education and Open Educational

Resources, which will allow a greater knowledge for the

innovation of teachers.

It presents a table with relevant information to academics,

which is of immediate consultation and can have an orientation

in all necessary aspects for teacher innovation from open


These concepts are used in the proposal of a methodology

(InnovaREA), to promote teacher innovation.









implemented, a script for the Google Analytics Counter

Audience Overview tool was integrated for monitoring,

allowing us to collect different statistical data that will be used

as feedback for model improvement.

The elements present at http://www.innovarea.org, will

allow academics to reach a meeting point with relevant

information that allows them to know the technological

components of open education, the OER Ecosystem, training in

ICT skills to be able to develop efficiently content and innovate

with the educational model open through the OER ecosystem

in higher education and / or any educational center.



We are grateful to the EuroInkaNet Project, Europe and

Latin America Sustainable Innovation and Knowledge

Academic Network as part of the Program Funded by the

European Union - Action 2 Erasmus Mundus Partnerships,

GRANT AGREEMENT NUMBER - 2014 - 0870/001 - 001.




[1] E. Chang y M. West, «Digital Ecosystems A Next Generation of the Collaborative Environment», en iiWAS’2006 - The Eighth International

Conference on Information Integration and Web-based Applications Services, 4-6 December 2006, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 2006, vol. 214,

pp. 3–24.

[2] R. Motz y V. Rodés, «Pensando los Ecosistemas de Aprendizaje desde los Entornos Virtuales de Aprendizaje», Conf. LACLO, vol. 4, n.o 1, nov. 2013.

[3] Bronfenbrenner Urie, «Ecología del desarrollo humano». [En línea].

Disponible en:

http://www.iglesia.cl/documentos_sac/30092015_546pm_560c4a3055 e68.pdf. [Accedido: 14-abr-2017].

[4] R. C. Larrauri, «Ecosistema educativo y fracaso escolar», Rev. Iberoam.

Educ., vol. 49, n.o 4, p. 7, 2009.

[5] A. García-Holgado y F. J. García-Peñalvo, «The Evolution of the Technological Ecosystems: An Architectural Proposal to Enhancing Learning Processes», en Proceedings of the First International

Conference on Technological Ecosystem for Enhancing Multiculturality, New York, NY, USA, 2013, pp. 565–571.

[6] F. L. Largo, «La tecnología como motor de la innovación educativa. Estrategia y política institucional de la Universidad de Alicante», Arbor, vol. 185, n.o Extra, pp. 21-32, sep. 2009.

[7] «¿Qué es la educación abierta?» [En línea]. Disponible en: http://blogthinkbig.com/que-es-la-educacion-abierta/. [Accedido: 14-abr-2017].

[8] C. B. España-Villegas y M. Caeiro-Rodriguez, «Research proposal for technology adoption in the oer ecosystem», en 2016 International

Symposium on Computers in Education (SIIE), 2016, pp. 1-6.

[9] Willey David, «www.opencontent.org». [En línea]. Disponible en: https://www.opencontent.org/definition/. [Accedido: 14-abr-2017]. [10] OECD, El conocimiento libre y los recursos educativos abiertos. Paris:

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2009. [11] Open Society Foundations, «The Cape Town Open Education

Declaration». [En línea]. Disponible en: http://www.capetowndeclaration.org/. [Accedido: 14-abr-2017]. [12] UNESCO, «Directrices para los recursos educativos abiertos (REA) en

la educación superior; 2015». 2015.

[13] M. Rimini, D. Orr, y D. van Damme, Open Educational Resources. OECD Publishing, 2015.

[14] L. Yuan, R. J. Robertson, L. M. Campbell, y C. Pegler, «Examining the sustainability issues in UKOER projects : Developing a sustainable OER ecosystem in HE», sep. 2010.

[15] EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) y New Media Consortium (NMC), «Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education».

[16] Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education, «2015-nmc-horizon-report-HE-EN.pdf». [En línea]. Disponible en: http://cdn.nmc.org/media/2015-nmc-horizon-report-HE-EN.pdf. [Accedido: 14-abr-2017].


[17] R. Bodily, R. Nyland, y D. Wiley, «The RISE Framework: Using Learning Analytics to Automatically Identify Open Educational Resources for Continuous Improvement», Int. Rev. Res. Open Distrib.

Learn., vol. 18, n.o 2, abr. 2017.

[18] Santos-Hermosa, G, Ferran-Ferrer, N., y Abadal, E., «Recursos educativos abiertos: repositorios y uso». [En línea]. Disponible en: http://www.accesoabierto.net/sites/accesoabierto.net/files/Santos-Ferran-Abadal-EPI.pdf. [Accedido: 20-jul-2016].

[19] A. Zancanaro, J. L. Todesco, y F. Ramos, «A bibliometric mapping of open educational resources», Int. Rev. Res. Open Distrib. Learn., vol. 16, n.o 1, ene. 2015.

[20] A. Zancanaro, «Produção de recursos educacionais abertos com foco na disseminação do conhecimento: uma proposta de framework», 2015. [21] J. H. Sharp, «Development, extension, and application: a review of the

technology acceptance model», Director, vol. 7, 2006.

[22] V. Venkatesh y F. D. Davis, «A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: Four Longitudinal Field Studies»,


Powiązane dokumenty

Описи эти ограничены 1580 —1655'годами; по территориальному принципу они прои: ходят из восточной части Великой Польши (воеводства

The course consists of (a) an openness test developed by the Coalition for Open Education, which offers an initial diagnostics of openness; (b) a module dedicated to the

Dla przedstawio- nego przypadku prawego wału przeciwpowodziowego rzeki Małej Wisły, przeprowadzono analizę stateczności i przepływ wody w korpusie wału podczas

The blood plasma of the patients with connective tissue diseases had lower antioxidant activities as compared to the blood plasma of the healthy volun- teers..

In a review of a great number of different experimental observations, Christodoulou [1986] was able to regroup most experimental data points through tiie definition of a


towana, jest t?po zako?czona (podobnie jak w przypad- ku grotów z Cierniówki i Radawy) i nasuni?ta na

ments is the set of absolute morał values acknowledged as indisputable by the ma- jority of citizens. In other words, liberał society is indebted in the non-liberal