### XCV.1 (2000)

**Exponential sums with rational function entries**

### by

## Todd Cochrane (Manhattan, KS) and Zhiyong Zheng (Guangzhou)

**1. Introduction. In this paper we extend the results of [6] to pure and** mixed exponential sums of the type

*(1.1)* *S(f, p*

^{m}## ) =

*p*^{m}

## X

*x=1*

*e*

_{p}

^{m}*(f (x)),* *S(χ, f, p*

^{m}## ) =

*p*^{m}

## X

*x=1*

*χ(x)e*

_{p}

^{m}*(f (x)),* *with rational function entries. Here p*

^{m}*is a prime power with m ≥ 2, χ is a* *multiplicative character (mod p*

^{m}*), e*

_{p}*m*

*(·) is the additive character,*

*e*

_{p}

^{m}*(x) = e(x/p*

^{m}*) = e*

^{2πix/p}

^{m}*,*

*and f = f*

_{1}

*/f*

_{2}

*is a rational function with f*

_{1}

*, f*

_{2}

*∈ Z[X], and (f*

_{1}

*, f*

_{2}

## ) = 1 *in Z[X]. It is understood that in the two sums x is to take on only values* *with p - f*

_{2}

*(x), p - xf*

_{2}

*(x) respectively, and that f (x) means f*

_{1}

*(x)f*

_{2}

*(x), where* *f*

2*(x) denotes the multiplicative inverse of f*

2*(x) (mod p*

^{m}*). Let d(f ) and* *d*

^{∗}*(f ) denote the total and maximal degrees of f ,*

*d(f ) := d(f*

_{1}

*) + d(f*

_{2}

*),* *d*

^{∗}*(f ) := max{d(f*

_{1}

*), d(f*

_{2}

*)}.*

## Let e *f denote the image of f in F*

_{p}*(X), e* *f = e* *f*

_{1}

*/ e* *f*

_{2}

## , and let *d*

*p*

*(f ) = d( e* *f ),* *d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ) = d*

^{∗}## ( e *f ),*

*the total and maximal degrees of e* *f (written in reduced form).*

*It was established by Bombieri [2], Theorem 5, that for the case m = 1* *we have for any f with d*

*p*

*(f ) ≥ 1,*

*(1.2)* *|S(f, p)| ≤ (n − 2 + deg( e* *f )*

_{∞}*)p*

^{1/2}*+ 1,*

*2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 11L07, 11L03.*

*Key words and phrases: exponential sums.*

### Research of the second author was supported by the National Science Fund of The People’s Republic of China for Distinguished Young Scholars. The second author also expresses his thanks to Kansas State University, where he spent Spring 1998 as a visiting scholar.

[67]

*where n is the number of poles and ( e* *f )*

*∞*

## is the divisor of the poles of e *f over* the algebraic closure F

*p*

## of F

*p*

## : ( e *f )*

*∞*

## = P

_{n}*i=1*

*d*

*i*

*P*

*i*

*. Here the P*

*i*

## are the poles *(including ∞ if necessary) and the d*

_{i}## are their respective multiplicities. The plus 1 on the right-hand side of (1.2) may be omitted if e *f has a pole at ∞.*

## Perelmuter [23] extended Bombieri’s result to mixed exponential sums and *obtained for any multiplicative character χ and any rational function f over* *Z with d*

_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1,*

*(1.3)* *|S(χ, f, p)| ≤ (n − 1 + deg( e* *f )*

_{∞}*)p*

^{1/2}*.*

## In particular, from (1.2) and (1.3) one obtains the uniform upper bounds

*|S(f, p)| ≤*

## *(d*

_{p}*(f ) − 1)p*

^{1/2}*if d*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*) > d*

_{p}*(f*

_{2}

## ), *2(d*

_{p}*(f*

_{2}

*) − 1)p*

^{1/2}*+ 1 if d*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*) ≤ d*

_{p}*(f*

_{2}

## ), *(1.4)*

*|S(χ, f, p)| ≤*

## *d*

_{p}*(f )p*

^{1/2}*if d*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*) > d*

_{p}*(f*

_{2}

## ), *(2d*

*p*

*(f*

2*) − 1)p*

^{1/2}*if d*

*p*

*(f*

1*) ≤ d*

*p*

*(f*

2## ).

*(1.5)*

*For values of m ≥ 2 little has been said about these sums for rational* functions in general, although the case of polynomials has been studied extensively and is discussed at length in our work [6]; see Chalk [4], Chen [5], Ding [8], [9], Hua [12]–[14], Konyagin and Shparlinski [17], Loh [18], [19], Loxton and Smith [20], Loxton and Vaughan [21], Nechaev [22], Smith [26] and Stechkin [27]. The first sums with rational function entries to be *studied were the Kloosterman sums with f (X) = AX + BX*

^{−1}## . Shparlinski [25] treated the more general case of sparse Laurent polynomials. The basic uniform upper bound for polynomials is the Hua upper bound,

*(1.6)* *|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ Cp*

^{m(1−1/d)}*,*

*for any polynomial f of degree d with d*

_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1. The exponent m(1 − 1/d)* *is best possible for a uniform upper bound. The constant C in the original* *work of Hua depended on d but it has been refined many times over the* *years. Currently the best value is the absolute constant C = 4.41, proven* in our recent work [7]. For mixed exponential sums, and polynomial entries, the analogue of (1.6) established in [6] is

*(1.7)* *|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ 4dp*

*m(1−1/(d+1))*

*.*

*The question arises what parameter plays the role of d in (1.6) and (1.7)* *when f is a rational function, the total degree, the maximal degree, or some* other value. In this paper we show that the maximal degree suffices for pure exponential sums, but for mixed exponential sums one needs a value closer to the total degree.

## To state our results, let ord

*p*

*(x) denote the normal exponent valuation on*

*the p-adic field. In particular, for x 6= 0 ∈ Z, p*

^{ord}

^{p}

^{(x)}*k x. Put ord*

_{p}*(0) = ∞.*

*For any nonzero polynomial f = f (X) = a*

0*+ a*

1*X + . . . + a*

*d*

*X*

^{d}*∈ Z[X] let*

*(1.8)* ord

*p*

*(f ) := min*

*0≤i≤d*

*{ord*

*p*

*(a*

*i*

*)},*

## and extend the valuation to rational functions over Z by setting ord

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*/f*

_{2}

## )

## = ord

*p*

*(f*

1*) − ord*

*p*

*(f*

2## ).

*Pure exponential sums. We start by considering the case of pure exponen-* *tial sums. Let f be a nonconstant rational function over Z. Set t = ord*

_{p}*(f*

^{0}## ) *and let A ⊂ F*

*p*

## be the set of solutions of the congruence

*(1.9)* *p*

^{−t}*f*

^{0}*(x) ≡ 0 (mod p).*

*We denote by A the set of critical points associated with the sum S(f, p*

^{m}## ), *and for any point α ∈ A we let ν*

_{α}*denote the multiplicity of α as a zero of* *(1.9). If α 6∈ A put ν*

_{α}*= 0. For any integer α with p - f*

_{2}

*(α), let*

*S*

_{α}*= S*

_{α}*(f, p*

^{m}## ) :=

*p*^{m}

## X

*x≡α (mod p)x=1*

*e*

_{p}

^{m}*(f (x)).*

## In Theorem 3.1 we obtain the upper bounds

*|S*

_{α}*(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ ν*

_{α}*p*

^{t/(ν}

^{α}^{+1)}

*p*

^{m(1−1/(ν}

^{α}^{+1))}

*,* *(1.10)*

*|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤* X

*α∈A*

*ν*

_{α}*p*

^{t/(M +1)}*p*

*m(1−1/(M +1))*

*,* *(1.11)*

*for any nonconstant rational function f over Z, any odd prime p and any* *exponent m with m ≥ t + 2, where M = max*

*α∈A*

*{ν*

*α*

*}. In particular, S*

*α*

## = 0 *if α 6∈ A. For p = 2 we obtain the same bounds if m ≥ t + 3 or m = 2 and* *t = 0.*

*The value M can be as large as d − 1, where d is the total degree of* *f , as evidenced by a function such as f (X) = X*

^{p}*/(1 + X*

^{k}## ), which has an *associated critical point at 0 of multiplicity p + k − 1. Thus, one can only* *deduce from (1.11) a uniform upper bound with exponent m(1−1/d), where* *d is the total degree of f . In Corollary 3.1 we establish the much stronger* upper bound

*(1.12)* *|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ dp*

^{m(1−1/d}

^{∗}^{)}

*,*

*where d*

^{∗}*is the maximal degree of f . This upper bound is valid for any* *rational function f over Z, any odd prime p with d*

_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1, and any value* *of m ≥ 2. When p = 2 we obtain the same upper bound with an extra factor* of *√*

## 2 on the right-hand side.

## The upper bound in (1.12) is obtained by establishing a new type of local *upper bound on exponential sums. For any integer α let*

*σ*

_{α}## := ord

_{p}*(f (pY + α) − f (α)).*

*In Theorem 3.2 we show that if m ≥ t + 2 and d*

*p*

*(f ) ≥ 1 then* *(1.13)* *|S*

_{α}*(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ ν*

_{α}*p*

^{m(1−1/σ}

^{α}^{)}

*.*

*Now σ*

_{α}*≤ ν*

_{α}*+t+1, as shown in Lemma 2.2(ii), and thus for t = 0 the upper* *bound in (1.13) is always sharper than (1.10). For t > 0, (1.10) is sometimes* *better. The parameter σ*

*α*

## has appeared in many papers on exponential sums but we are not aware of an upper bound of the type (1.13) ever appearing before, even for the case of polynomials.

*Mixed exponential sums. We now turn our attention to the case of mixed* *exponential sums. Suppose that p is an odd prime. Let a denote a fixed* *primitive root (mod p) chosen so that a > 0 and*

*(1.14)* *a*

^{p−1}*= 1 + rp* with *p - r.*

*In particular a is a primitive root (mod p*

^{m}*) for any exponent m. Let χ be a* *multiplicative character (mod p*

^{m}*) and let c = c(χ, a) be the unique integer* *with 0 < c ≤ p*

^{m−1}*(p − 1) and*

*(1.15)* *χ(a*

^{k}*) = e*

## *ck*

*p*

^{m−1}*(p − 1)*

## *,*

*for every integer k. Thus for instance, if χ = χ*

0## , the principal character, then *c = p*

^{m−1}*(p − 1) and if χ is the quadratic character, then c = p*

^{m−1}*(p − 1)/2.*

*A character χ is primitive if and only if p - c.*

*For any rational function f over Z we define* *(1.16)* *t*

_{1}

*= t*

_{1}

*(f ) := ord*

_{p}*(rXf*

^{0}*(X) + c).*

*If p > d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1 then t = t*

1 *= 0. In Lemma 4.1 it is shown that t*

1 ## = *min{t, ord*

_{p}*(c)} ≤ m − 1. The set of critical points A ⊂ F*

_{p}## associated with *the sum S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*) is defined to be the set of nonzero residues (mod p)* satisfying the congruence

*(1.17)* *p*

^{−t}^{1}

*(rxf*

^{0}*(x) + c) ≡ 0 (mod p).*

## It is easy to check that this congruence does not depend on the choice of *the primitive root a. For any α ∈ A we again let ν*

_{α}## denote the multiplicity *of α as a zero of the congruence (1.17) and for α 6∈ A, let ν*

*α*

## = 0. Let *(1.18)* *S*

_{α}*= S*

_{α}*(χ, f, p*

^{m}## ) :=

*p*^{m}

## X

*x≡α (mod p)x=1*

*χ(x)e*

_{p}*m*

*(f (x)).*

## In Theorem 4.1 we establish the upper bounds

*|S*

_{α}*(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ ν*

_{α}*p*

^{t/(ν}

^{α}^{+1)}

*p*

^{m(1−1/(ν}

^{α}^{+1))}

*,* *(1.19)*

*|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤* X

*α∈A*

*ν*

_{α}*p*

^{t/(M +1)}*p*

*m(1−1/(M +1))*

*,*

*(1.20)*

*for any rational function f and any value m ≥ t+2. Here M = max*

*α∈A*

*{ν*

*α*

*}.*

*If ν*

_{α}*= 1 then we obtain an explicit formula for S*

_{α}## and show that we have *equality in (1.19). Similar estimates are obtained when p = 2 in Theorem 4.2.*

## Now, since

*rXf*

^{0}*(X) + c = (rX[f*

_{2}

*f*

_{1}

^{0}*− f*

_{1}

*f*

_{2}

^{0}*] + cf*

_{2}

^{2}

*)/f*

_{2}

^{2}

*,* *it is apparent that the value M can be no larger than*

*D = D(f, χ) := max{d(f*

1*) + d(f*

2*), 2d(f*

2*)}.*

## Thus we are able to deduce in Corollary 4.1 the upper bound *(1.21)* *|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ 4Dp*

*m(1−1/(D+1))*

*,*

*for any rational function f over Z, any prime p with d*

*p*

*(f ) ≥ 1, any m ≥ 2* *and any multiplicative character χ (mod p*

^{m}*). If χ is a primitive character* *and p ≤ D then a sharper exponent is available using the inequality M < p,* which is proven in a remark at the end of Section 4.

## One would hope to be able to obtain a sharper upper bound, say of the type (1.12), for mixed exponential sums, but no such sharpening is available.

*In Example 6.1 we show that for any positive integer d*

1## , there is a rational *function f = f*

_{1}

*/f*

_{2}

*with d(f*

_{1}

*) = d(f*

_{2}

*) = d*

_{1}

## such that for infinitely many *pairs χ, m we have |S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| = p*

*m(1−1/(D+1))*

## . In a similar manner one *can show that for the rational function f (X) = 1/(X − b) with p - b, and any* *value of m ≥ 2, there exist multiplicative characters χ (mod p*

^{m}## ) with

*|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| = p*

^{m(1−1/3)}*= p*

*m(1−1/(D+1))*

*.*

*There is still room for improvement in (1.21) when d*

_{1}

*6= d*

_{2}

## . The basic *question that must be answered is: for given values of d*

1*, d*

2## , what is the *maximum possible value of M ?*

*Kloosterman and Sali´e sums. In Section 5 we apply our results to the* *particular case of Kloosterman and Sali´e type sums, where f (X) = AX +* *BX*

^{−1}*, p - AB. We obtain for p odd and m ≥ 2,*

*(1.22)*

*p*^{m}

## X

*x=1*

*χ(x)e*

_{p}*m*

*(Ax + Bx*

^{−1}## )

*≤*

##

##

##

##

*2p*

^{m/2}*if χ*

2*(4ABr*

^{2}

*+ c*

^{2}

## ) = 1, 0 *if χ*

_{2}

*(4ABr*

^{2}

*+ c*

^{2}

*) = −1,* 0 *if p k (4ABR*

^{2}

*+ c*

^{2}

*), m ≥ 3,* *2p*

^{2m/3}*if p*

^{2}

*| (4ABR*

^{2}

*+ c*

^{2}

## ),

*where r is as in (1.14), and R is the p-adic integer R := p*

^{−1}*log(1 + rp) ≡ r*

*(mod p). In the first case the sum can be explicitly evaluated (see (5.2), (5.3),*

*(5.7)). Similar bounds are given when p = 2 (see (5.8)). For the Kloosterman*

*and Sali´e sums one takes χ to be the principal character and Jacobi symbol*

*respectively. In these cases the upper bound 2p*

^{m/2}## is well known, and has found many applications, such as in the study of automorphic forms (see Iwaniec [15]) and in the work of Duke, Friedlander and Iwaniec [10] on bilinear forms with Kloosterman fractions. In Example 5.1 we show that *the exponent 2m/3 in the last case of (1.22) is best possible by exhibiting* *an infinite class of such sums for which |S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| = p*

^{2m/3}## .

**2. Preliminary lemmas. Let p be a prime, Z**

**2. Preliminary lemmas. Let p be a prime, Z**

*p*

## , Q

*p*

*denote the p-* *adic integers and p-adic rationals respectively and let Ω*

_{p}## be a complete algebraically closed field containing Q

_{p}## (see for example Koblitz [16]). Let *f = f*

1*/f*

2 *be a rational function over Z with (f*

1*, f*

2*) = 1 in Z[X], and* ord

_{p}*(f*

_{2}

## ) = 0. Thus ord

_{p}*(f ) = ord*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*). In this section we shall view f in* *two ways, first as an analytic function f = f (x) defined on Ω*

*p*

## , and second *as a formal rational function f = f (X) in the indeterminate X.*

*Let α be a fixed integer with p - f*

_{2}

*(α). Then, over Q*

_{p}*, f admits a Taylor* *series expansion about α,*

*(2.1)* *f (x) =*

## X

*∞*

*i=0*

*a*

_{i}*(x − α)*

^{i}*,*

*with p-adic integer coefficients a*

*i*

*, i ≥ 0, given by a*

*i*

*= f*

^{(i)}*(α)/i!, and with* *the series converging pointwise to f (x) at any value of x with ord*

_{p}*(x−α) > 0.*

*We also find that for any x with ord*

_{p}*(x − α) > 0,*

*(2.2)* *f*

^{0}*(x) =*

## X

*∞*

*i=0*

*ia*

_{i}*(x − α)*

^{i−1}*.*

*Define t = ord*

_{p}*(f*

^{0}*), as before. The integer α is called a zero of f (mod p)* *of multiplicity ν if, letting e* *f*

1 *be the image of f*

1 ## in F

*p*

*[X], we can write* *f* e

_{1}

*(X) = (X − e* *α)*

^{ν}## e *g(X) for some polynomial e* *g(X) ∈ F*

_{p}*[X] with e* *g(e* *α) 6= 0.*

*(Note that in this definition we have assumed p - f*

_{2}

*(α), so that X − e* *α is not* a factor of e *f*

2*(X).)*

*Lemma 2.1. For any rational function f over Z as given above and any* *integer α with p - f*

2*(α) we have:*

*(i) The coefficients {a*

*i*

*}*

^{∞}_{i=1}*in (2.1) satisfy* ord

_{p}*(f ) = min*

*i≥0*

*{ord*

_{p}*(a*

_{i}*)}.*

*(ii) If α is a zero of f (mod p) of multiplicity ν then p | a*

*i*

*, 1 ≤ i < ν,* *p - a*

_{ν}*and p*

^{t}*| ν.*

*(iii) If d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1 then*

*(2.3)* *p*

^{t}*≤ d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ) := max{d*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*), d*

_{p}*(f*

_{2}

*)}.*

*If , in addition, f is a polynomial, then p*

^{t}*| d*

_{p}*(f ).*

*P r o o f. Suppose first that f = f (X) is a polynomial. Then viewing p as* *a prime in the unique factorization domain Z[X] we see that the condition* *p*

^{k}*k f (X) is equivalent to saying k = ord*

_{p}*(f ). Now p*

^{k}*k f (X) if and only if* *p*

^{k}*k f (X + α), and thus since the latter polynomial is just* P

_{d}*i=1*

*a*

_{i}*X*

^{i}## we obtain the result of part (i).

*Suppose now that f = f*

1*/f*

2 *is a rational function over Z. Let f*

1*, f*

2
*have Taylor expansions about α given by* *f*

_{1}

*(x) =*

*d*_{1}

## X

*i=0*

*b*

_{i}*(x − α)*

^{i}*,* *f*

_{2}

*(x) =*

*d*_{2}

## X

*i=0*

*c*

_{i}*(x − α)*

^{i}*.* We work now in the ring of formal power series Z

_{p}*[[T ]], and define*

*F (T ) =* X

*∞*

*i=0*

*a*

_{i}*T*

^{i}*,* *F*

_{1}

*(T ) =*

*d*1

## X

*i=0*

*b*

_{i}*T*

^{i}*,* *F*

_{2}

*(T ) =*

*d*2

## X

*i=0*

*c*

_{i}*T*

^{i}*.*

*Then F*

1*(T ) = F (T )F*

2*(T ). Since p - f*

2*(α) we have p - F*

2*(T ) in Z*

*p*

*[[T ]], and* *thus p*

^{k}*k F*

_{1}

*(T ) if and only if p*

^{k}*k F (T ) or in other words,*

*0≤i≤d*

## min

_{1}

*{ord*

_{p}*(b*

_{i}*)} = min*

*i≥0*

*{ord*

_{p}*(a*

_{i}*)}.*

## But we have already established (in the case of polynomials) that the left- hand side is just ord

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

## ) = ord

_{p}*(f ). This completes the proof of part (i).*

## Now let e *F (T ), e* *F*

_{1}

*(T ), e* *F*

_{2}

*(T ) be the images of F, F*

_{1}

*, F*

_{2}

## in F

_{p}*[[T ]]. Then,* *if α is a zero of f (x) (mod p) of multiplicity ν it follows that*

*F (T ) =* e X

*∞*

*i=0*

## e

*a*

_{i}*T*

^{i}*,* *F* e

_{1}

*(T ) =*

*d*1

## X

*i=ν*

*eb*

*i*

*T*

^{i}*,* *F* e

_{2}

*(T ) =*

*d*2

## X

*i=0*

## e *c*

_{i}*T*

^{i}*.*

## Therefore, from the relationship e *F*

_{1}

*(T ) = e* *F (T ) e* *F*

_{2}

*(T ) and the fact that* e

*c*

0*6= 0 we obtain the first part of (ii). Applying part (i) of the lemma to the* *function f*

^{0}*(x) we have t = min*

_{i≥1}*{ord*

_{p}*(ia*

_{i}*)}. In particular, p*

^{t}*| νa*

_{ν}## . Since *p - a*

_{ν}*it follows that p*

^{t}*| ν.*

*Suppose now that d*

*p*

*(f ) ≥ 1. The inequality p*

^{t}*≤ d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ) in part (iii) is* *now immediate if f has at least one zero (mod p) of multiplicity ν ≥ 1, for* *then by part (ii), p*

^{t}*≤ ν ≤ d*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*) ≤ d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ). If f has no zero (mod p) then* *we let α be any integer where f is defined and replace f with the function* *f (X) − f (α) to obtain a new rational function vanishing at α and satisfying* *t(f (X) − f (α)) = t(f ). Now since*

*f (X) − f (α) = (f*

_{1}

*(X) − f (α)f*

_{2}

*(X))/f*

_{2}

*(X),*

*we also have d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f (X) − f (α)) = d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ), and the result of part (iii) follows.*

*Finally, if f is a polynomial of degree d*

*p*

*then we also have p*

^{t}*| d*

*p*

*a*

*d*

_{p}## with

*p - a*

_{d}

_{p}*, and so p*

^{t}*| d*

_{p}## .

*Suppose now that α is a zero of the critical point congruence*

*(2.4)* *p*

^{−t}*f*

^{0}*(x) ≡ 0 (mod p)*

*of multiplicity ν ≥ 1. Then it follows from Lemma 2.1(ii) that* *(2.5)* ord

*p*

*(ia*

*i*

## )

*( ≥ t + 1 if 1 ≤ i ≤ ν,*

*= t* *if i = ν + 1,*

*≥ t* *if i > ν + 1,* *and consequently for i ≥ 1,*

*(2.6) ord*

*p*

*(a*

*i*

*p*

^{i}## ) = ord

*p*

*(ia*

*i*

*) + i − ord*

*p*

*(i) ≥*

## *t + 2 if p is odd or ν > 1,* *t + 1 if p = 2, ν = 1.*

*Let σ, g(Y ) be defined by*

*σ := ord*

*p*

*(f (pY + α) − f (α)),* *g(Y ) := p*

^{−σ}*(f (pY + α) − f (α)),* *and τ , g*

1*(Y ) be defined by*

*τ := ord*

*p*

*(g*

^{0}*(Y )),* *g*

1*(Y ) := p*

^{−τ}*g*

^{0}*(Y ).*

*Now, by the Taylor expansion for f in (2.1) we have* *g(Y ) =*

## X

*∞*

*i=1*

*a*

_{i}*p*

^{i−σ}*Y*

^{i}*and g*

_{1}

*(Y ) =* X

*∞*

*i=1*

*a*

_{i}*ip*

^{i−σ−τ}*Y*

^{i−1}*.*

*Thus, read (mod p), both g(Y ) and g*

_{1}

*(Y ) are polynomials in Y of respective* *degrees d*

*p*

*(g), d*

*p*

*(g*

1## ), and we obtain the same relations as in Lemma 3.1 of [6], which was stated for the case of polynomials.

*Lemma 2.2. For any prime p and zero α of (2.4) of multiplicity ν we* *have:*

*σ ≥*

## *t + 2 if p is odd or ν > 1,* *t + 1 if p = 2 and ν = 1.*

## (i)

*σ ≤ ν + 1 + t − τ.*

## (ii)

*d*

*p*

*(g) ≤*

## *σ − t + ord*

*p*

*(d*

*p*

*(g)) ≤ ν + 1 + ord*

*p*

*(d*

*p*

*(g)),* *σ ≤ ν + 1 + t − τ.*

## (iii)

*d*

_{p}*(g*

_{1}

*) ≤ σ + τ − t − 1 ≤ ν.*

## (iv)

*p*

^{τ}*≤ d*

_{p}*(g).*

## (v)

*If d*

_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1 then σ ≤ d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ).*

## (vi)

## P r o o f. From (2.1) we obtain

*f (pY + α) − f (α) =* X

*∞*

*i=1*

*a*

_{i}*p*

^{i}*Y*

^{i}*,*

*and thus by Lemma 2.1(i), σ = min*

*i≥1*

*{ord*

*p*

*(a*

*i*

*p*

^{i}*)}. The result of part (i)* *follows from (2.6). Now for the term i = d*

_{p}*(g) we must have*

*σ = ord*

*p*

*(a*

*i*

*p*

^{i}## ) = ord

*p*

*(ia*

*i*

*) + i − ord*

*p*

*(i).*

## It follows from (2.5) that

*i = σ + ord*

_{p}*(i) − ord*

_{p}*(ia*

_{i}*) ≤ σ + ord*

_{p}*(i) − t,*

## from which the first inequalities in (iii) follow. The second inequalities in (iii) follow immediately from (ii).

*Now since the coefficients of g*

1*(Y ) are p-adic integers, we see upon ex-* *amining the i = ν + 1 coefficient that*

## ord

*p*

*(a*

*ν+1*

*(ν + 1)p*

^{ν+1−σ−τ}*) ≥ 0.*

*Thus by (2.5) we obtain (ii). Similarly, upon examining the i = d*

_{p}*(g*

_{1}

## ) + 1 coefficient and using (2.5) we obtain (iv). The second inequality in (iv) follows immediately from (ii). Part (v) follows from Lemma 2.1(iii) applied *to g.*

## To prove (vi) we note that the rational function *f (X) − f (α) =*

## X

*∞*

*i=1*

*a*

*i*

*(X − α)*

^{i}*has a zero (mod p) at α of multiplicity say ω with 1 ≤ ω ≤ d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ). Thus* *p - a*

_{ω}*and σ ≤ ord*

_{p}*(a*

_{ω}*p*

^{ω}*) = ω ≤ d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ).*

*Lemma 2.3. Let p be a prime, f = f*

_{1}

*/f*

_{2}

*be a rational function over Z* *with (f*

_{1}

*, f*

_{2}

*) = 1 and t = ord*

_{p}*(f*

^{0}*) and let t*

_{1}

*be an integer with 0 ≤ t*

_{1}

*≤ t.*

*Suppose that p is odd and m ≥ t*

1*+ 2, or p = 2 and m ≥ t*

1*+ 3, or p = 2,* *t*

_{1}

*= 0 and m = 2. Then for any integers z, y with p - f*

_{2}

*(y) we have (in Z*

_{p}## )

*f (y + p*

^{m−t}^{1}

^{−1}*z) ≡ f (y) + f*

^{0}*(y)p*

^{m−t}^{1}

^{−1}*z (mod p*

^{m}*).*

*P r o o f. Since p - f*

2*(y), f admits a p-adic Taylor expansion about y of* *the type f (y + x) =* P

_{∞}*i=0*

*a*

_{i}*x*

^{i}*with p-adic integer coefficients a*

_{i}## , and with *the series converging to the function at any value of x with ord*

_{p}*(x) > 0.*

*Thus if m ≥ t*

1*+ 2 then for any integer z,* *(2.7)* *f (y + p*

^{m−t}^{1}

^{−1}*z) =*

## X

*∞*

*i=0*

*a*

_{i}*(p*

^{m−t}^{1}

^{−1}*z)*

^{i}*.* Now by (2.6), ord

*p*

*(ia*

*i*

*) ≥ t for i ≥ 1. Thus for any i ≥ 1,*

## ord

_{p}*(a*

_{i}*p*

^{(m−t}^{1}

^{−1)i}*) ≥ i(m − t*

_{1}

*− 1) + t − ord*

_{p}*(i)* *(2.8)*

*≥ i(m − t*

_{1}

*− 1) + t*

_{1}

*− ord*

_{p}*(i),*

*and for i ≥ 2 the quantity on the right side is ≥ m if and only if* *m ≥ t*

1## + *i + ord*

*p*

*(i)*

*i − 1* *.*

*It is easy to check that the latter inequality holds for all i ≥ 2 if p is odd* *and m ≥ t*

_{1}

*+ 2 or if p = 2 and m ≥ t*

_{1}

*+ 3. If p = 2, m = 2 and t*

_{1}

## = 0 then *we return to (2.8) and replace the right side with i(m − t*

_{1}

*− 1) = i to obtain* the result.

## In the application of Lemma 2.3 to exponential sums it is convenient for *us to extend the domain of the additive character e*

_{p}

^{m}*(·) to Z*

_{p}## by setting, *for any x ∈ Z*

*p*

## ,

*(2.9)* *e*

_{p}

^{m}*(x) := e*

_{p}

^{m}## (e *x),*

## where e *x is the residue class of x in Z*

*p*

*/(p*

^{m}*) ' Z/(p*

^{m}## ). With this under- *standing, for any rational function f = f*

_{1}

*/f*

_{2}

*over Z and any integer x with* *p - f*

2*(x) we have f (x) ∈ Z*

*p*

## , and

*(2.10)* *e*

_{p}

^{m}*(f (x)) = e*

_{p}

^{m}*(f*

_{1}

*(x)f*

_{2}

*(x)),*

*where f*

_{2}

*(x) denotes the multiplicative inverse of f*

_{2}

*(x) (mod p*

^{m}## ).

**3. Pure exponential sums. Let f = f**

**3. Pure exponential sums. Let f = f**

_{1}

*/f*

_{2}

## be a rational function over *Z with (f*

1*, f*

2*) = 1, and A be the set of critical points associated with the* *exponential sum S(f, p*

^{m}## ) as defined in the introduction (see (1.9)). For any *integer α with p - f*

2*(α) let*

*(3.1)* *S*

_{α}*= S*

_{α}*(f, p*

^{m}## ) = X

*x≡α (mod p)x=1*

*e*

_{p}*m*

*(f (x)).*

*Theorem 3.1. Let p be a prime, f be a nonconstant rational function* *defined over Z, and α be any integer with p - f*

_{2}

*(α). Set t = ord*

_{p}*(f*

^{0}*).*

*(a) If p is odd and m ≥ t + 2 then* *(i) If α 6∈ A then S*

_{α}*(f, p*

^{m}*) = 0.*

*(ii) If α is a critical point of multiplicity ν then* *(3.2)* *|S*

*α*

*(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ νp*

^{t/(ν+1)}*p*

*m(1−1/(ν+1))*

*,*

*with equality if ν = 1.*

*(iii) If α is a critical point of multiplicity one then* *S*

_{α}*(f, p*

^{m}## ) =

## *e*

_{p}

^{m}*(f (α*

^{∗}*))p*

^{(m+t)/2}*if m − t is even,*

*χ*

2*(A*

*α*

*)e*

*p*

^{m}*(f (α*

^{∗}*))G*

*p*

*p*

^{(m+t−1)/2}*if m − t is odd,*

*where α*

^{∗}*is the unique lifting of α to a solution of the congruence*

*p*

^{−t}*f*

^{0}*(x) ≡ 0 (mod p*

*[(m−t+1)/2]*

*), and A*

_{α}*≡ 2p*

^{−t}*f*

^{00}*(α*

^{∗}*) (mod p).*

*(b) Let p = 2 and suppose that either m ≥ t + 3, or m = 2 and t = 0. If* *α 6∈ A then S*

_{α}*= 0, and if α ∈ A then*

*(3.3)* *|S*

*α*

*(f, 2*

^{m}*)| ≤ ν2*

^{t/(ν+1)}## 2

*m(1−1/(ν+1))*

*,* *with equality if ν = 1.*

## P r o o f. The proof is identical to the proof of Theorem 2.1 in [6]. One *starts by showing that under the hypotheses of Lemma 2.3 with t*

1*= t, we* have

*(3.4)* *S*

*α*

*= p*

^{t+1}## X

*y≡α (mod p)*
*p*^{t+1}*|f*^{0}*(y)*

*e*

*p*

^{m}*(f (y)),*

*and thus S*

*α*

*= 0 unless α ∈ A, proving part (a)(i) and the first part of (b).*

*Suppose now that α ∈ A. Then defining*

*(3.5)* *σ = σ*

*α*

## := ord

*p*

*(f (pY + α) − f (α)),* *g*

_{α}*(Y ) := p*

^{−σ}*(f (pY + α) − f (α)),*

*one obtains the following recursion relationship: If p is odd and m ≥ t + 2,* *or p = 2 and m ≥ t + 3 then*

*(3.6)* *S*

*α*

*(f, p*

^{m}*) = e*

*p*

^{m}*(f (α))p*

^{σ−1}*S(g*

*α*

*, p*

^{m−σ}*),*

*where the latter sum S(g*

_{α}*, p*

^{m−σ}*) is taken to be p*

^{m−σ}*, in case m < σ. The* *inequalities in (3.2) and (3.3) can then be proven by induction on m. The* proof is identical to that in [6] since the relations given in Lemma 2.2 of the present paper are identical to those of Lemma 3.1 of [6]. We note that when *m − σ = 1 (leaving the sum S(g*

_{α}*, p)), we need only appeal to the upper* *bound of Weil [28] for the case of polynomials, since g*

_{α}## is a polynomial *when read (mod p). The identity in part (a)(iii) and the equality in (3.2)* *and (3.3), when ν = 1, are also proven identically as in Section 5 of [6].*

## A particular consequence of this theorem is that if there are no critical *points associated with the sum S(f, p*

^{m}## ) then the sum is zero. As an example we state

*Corollary 3.1. Let f (X) = (aX + b)/(cX + d) be a rational function* *over Z with d*

^{∗}*= 1, that is, ad−bc 6= 0. Let p be any prime with p - (ad−bc).*

*Then if m ≥ 2 or m = 1 and p | c then S(f, p*

^{m}*) = 0. If m = 1 and p - c then* *S(f, p) = −e*

*p*

*(ac).*

*P r o o f. If p is a prime with p - (ad − bc) then t = t(f ) = 0 and there are*

*no critical points associated with the sum S(f, p*

^{m}*). Thus if m ≥ 2 it follows*

*from parts (i) and (iv) of Theorem 3.1 that S(f, p*

^{m}*) = 0. The case m = 1*

## can be dealt with in an elementary manner.

## Next we give a variant of the inequality in (3.2) in terms of the param- *eter σ.*

*Theorem 3.2. Let p be a prime, f be a nonconstant rational function de-* *fined over Z, and t = ord*

_{p}*(f*

^{0}*). Suppose that α is critical point of multiplicity* *ν with σ as defined in (3.5).*

*(a) If p is odd and m ≥ t + 2 then*

*(3.7)* *|S*

*α*

*(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ νp*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*.* *(b) If p = 2 and m ≥ t + 3 then*

*(3.8)* *|S*

*α*

*(f, 2*

^{m}*)| ≤* *√*

*2ν2*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*.*

*Corollary 3.2. Let p be a prime and f be a rational function over Z* *of total degree d and maximal degree d*

^{∗}*with d*

_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1. If p is odd then for* *any m ≥ 2 we have*

*(3.9)* *|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ dp*

^{m(1−1/d}

^{∗}^{)}

*.*

*If p = 2 then we obtain the same inequality with an extra factor of* *√* *2 on* *the right-hand side.*

*P r o o f. From the inequality σ*

_{α}*≤ d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ) of Lemma 2.2(vi) we obtain,* under the hypotheses of Theorem 3.2,

*(3.10)* *|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤* X

*α∈A*

*ν*

_{α}*p*

^{m(1−1/d}

^{∗}

^{p}

^{(f ))}*≤ d*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*)p*

^{m(1−1/d}

^{∗}

^{p}

^{(f ))}*,* with an extra factor of *√*

*2 on the right-hand side in case p = 2. Here,* *f*

_{1}

*= p*

^{−t}*f*

^{0}*. Since d*

_{p}*(f*

_{1}

*) ≤ d − 1 and d*

^{∗}_{p}*(f ) ≤ d*

^{∗}*(f ) we deduce the upper* bound in (3.9).

*Suppose now that p is odd and m ≤ t + 1. By (2.3) we have p*

^{t}*≤ d*

^{∗}## . *In particular, since m ≥ 2 we have d*

^{∗}*≥ p ≥ 3. Thus we obtain the trivial* upper bound

*|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ p*

^{m}*≤ p*

^{t}*p ≤ dp ≤ dp*

^{m(1−1/d}

^{∗}^{)}

*.*

*Suppose next that p = 2 and m ≤ t + 2. If d*

^{∗}## = 1 then the inequality in *(3.9) follows from Corollary 3.1. If d*

^{∗}*≥ 2 then since 2*

^{t}*≤ d*

^{∗}## we have

## 2

^{m}*≤ 4d*

^{∗}*≤ (* *√*

*2d*

^{∗}## )

^{d}

^{∗}*≤ (* *√* *2d)*

^{d}

^{∗}*,* and so 2

^{m/d}

^{∗}*≤* *√*

*2d. It follows that*

*|S(f, 2*

^{m}*)| ≤ 2*

^{m}*≤* *√*

*2d2*

^{m(1−1/d}

^{∗}^{)}

*.*

*Proof of Theorem 3.2. The proof is by induction on m. Suppose first that*

*p is odd. We shall prove the inequality in (3.7) together with the inequality*

*in (3.10), which is always an immediate consequence of (3.7). If m = 2, then*

*since σ ≥ 2 we have trivially that |S*

_{α}*| ≤ p ≤ νp*

^{m(1−1/σ)}## , establishing (3.7).

*Suppose now that m is an arbitrary positive integer with m ≥ t + 2* *and that the theorem has been proven for all smaller values of m. Let f* *be a rational function over Z, and let α be an associated critical point* *of multiplicity ν. We first dispense with the case ν = 1. In this case, by* *Theorem 3.1(iii), we have |S*

_{α}*| = p*

^{(m+t)/2}*. Now, using the assumption m ≥* *t + 2 and then the inequality σ ≥ t + 2 of Lemma 2.2(i), we have*

*t ≤ m*

*1 −* 2 *t + 2*

*≤ m*

## *1 −* 2

*σ*

## *,* whence it follows that

*(m + t)/2 ≤ m(1 − 1/σ),*

*which establishes (3.7). Henceforth we shall assume that ν ≥ 2. We consider* four cases.

*Case (i). If σ ≥ m then we have trivially,*

*|S*

_{α}*| ≤ p*

^{m−1}*= p*

^{m(1−1/m)}*≤ p*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*.*

*Case (ii). Suppose next that σ = m − 1. The trivial estimate |S*

*α*

*| ≤* *p*

^{m−1}*≤ νp*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*holds provided that p ≤ ν*

^{σ}*. Suppose now that p >*

*ν*

^{σ}*. Let d*

_{p}*= d*

_{p}*(g*

_{α}*) where g*

_{α}*is as defined in (3.5). If p = d*

_{p}## , then by *Lemma 2.2(iii), p ≤ ν +2, and thus ν*

^{σ}*< ν +2, contradicting our assumption* *that ν ≥ 2. If d*

_{p}*≥ 2p then since ord*

_{p}*(d*

_{p}*) ≤ d*

_{p}*/2 we have*

*p ≤*

^{1}

_{2}

*d*

*p*

*≤ d*

*p*

*− ord*

*p*

*(d*

*p*

*) ≤ ν + 1,*

## which again leads to a contradiction. Thus we must have ord

_{p}*(d*

_{p}## ) = 0 and *so by Lemma 2.2(iii), d*

*p*

*− 1 ≤ ν. Then by the recursion relationship (3.6)* and upper bound of Weil, we have

*|S*

*α*

*| = p*

^{σ−1}*S(g*

*α*

*, p) ≤ (d*

*p*

*(g*

*α*

*) − 1)p*

^{σ−1/2}*≤ νp*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*.* *Case (iii). Define τ and g*

_{1}

## as in Section 2,

*τ = ord*

*p*

*(g*

^{0}_{α}*),* *g*

1*(Y ) := p*

^{−τ}*g*

_{α}^{0}*(Y ).*

*Suppose that m − 1 − τ ≤ σ ≤ m − 2. In particular, τ ≥ 1. Then we have* the trivial upper bound

*|S*

_{α}*| ≤ p*

^{m−1}*≤ νp*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*if and only if p*

^{m−σ}*≤ ν*

^{σ}*. Now m − σ ≤ τ + 1, and so the trivial bound* *holds if p*

^{τ +1}*≤ ν*

^{σ}*. By Lemma 2.2(v) and (iii), p*

^{τ}*≤ d*

*p*

*(g) ≤ σ and so* *p*

^{τ +1}*≤ p*

^{2τ}*≤ σ*

^{2}

*. Thus it suffices to have σ*

^{2}

*≤ ν*

^{σ}## which is always the case *unless σ = 3 and ν = 2.*

*Suppose now that σ = 3, ν = 2. Then since p*

^{τ}*≤ σ we must have* *p = 3, τ = 1 and m = 5. Suppose that f has Taylor expansion f (x) =* P

_{∞}*i=0*

*a*

*i*

*(x−α)*

^{i}*about α, with p-adic integer coefficients a*

*i*

## . By Lemma 2.2(i)

*we obtain t ≤ σ − 2 = 1. Since ν = 2 it follows from (2.5) that t =*

## ord

*p*

*(3a*

3## ) = 1 + ord

*p*

*(a*

3*). Thus we must have t = 1 and ord*

*p*

*(a*

3## ) = 0. From the recursion relationship (3.6) we have

*|S*

_{α}*| = p*

^{2}

*|S(g*

_{α}*, p*

^{2}

*)|,* where

*g*

*α*

*(Y ) = p*

^{−3}## X

*∞*

*i=1*

*a*

*i*

*(pY )*

^{i}*.*

*Since τ = 1 it follows that p*

^{3}

*| a*

1 *and p*

^{2}

*| a*

2## , and thus we can write *g*

_{α}*(Y ) = a*

_{3}

*Y*

^{3}

*+ p(a*

_{4}

*Y*

^{4}

*+ b*

_{2}

*Y*

^{2}

*+ b*

_{1}

*Y ) + p*

^{2}

*(stuff),*

*for some p-adic integers b*

_{1}

*, b*

_{2}

*. It is clear that the value of g*

_{α}*(y) (mod 9)* *depends only on the residue class of y (mod 3), and so*

*|S(g*

_{α}*, p*

^{2}

*)| = 3* X

1
*y=−1*

*e*

_{9}

*(g*

_{α}*(y)).*

*Now since g*

_{α}*(0) = 0 and 3 - a*

_{3}

## , the latter sum is bounded above by

*|1 + e*

_{9}

*(1) + e*

_{9}

*(−1)| = 2.532 . . . < 2.884 . . . = 2 · 3*

^{1/3}*.* Altogether, we obtain

*|S*

_{α}*| = 3*

^{2}

*|S(g*

_{α}*, 3*

^{2}

*)| ≤ 3*

^{3}

*· 2 · 3*

^{1/3}*= ν3*

^{5(1−1/σ)}*.*

*Case (iv). Suppose finally that σ ≤ m − 2 − τ . In this case we can* *apply the induction assumption to the sum S(g*

_{α}*, p*

^{m−σ}## ) and deduce from the recursion relationship (3.6) and (3.10) that

*|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ p*

^{σ−1}*d*

_{p}*(g*

_{1}

*)p*

*(m−σ)(1−1/d*

*p*

*(g*

*α*))

*.*

*Now by Lemma 2.2(iv), d*

_{p}*(g*

_{1}

*) ≤ ν and by Lemma 2.2(iii), d*

_{p}*(g*

_{α}*) ≤ σ. Thus*

*|S(f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ p*

^{σ−1}*νp*

*(m−σ)(1−1/σ)*

*= νp*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*.*

*Next we consider the prime p = 2. Again, first consider the case ν = 1.*

*Suppose that α is a critical point of multiplicity one. Since f*

^{0}## cannot have a *zero of multiplicity one (mod 2), we must have t ≥ 1. Now by Lemma 2.2(i),* *σ ≥ t + 1. Using in turn the inequality t ≥ 1 and then the inequalities* *σ ≥ t + 1, m ≥ t + 3, we have*

*t*

## 2 *≤ (t + 3)*

## 1 2 *−* 1

*t + 1*

## + 1

## 2 *≤ m*

## 1 2 *−* 1

*σ*

## + 1

## 2 *.* Thus, by the equality in (3.3), we have

*|S*

_{α}*(f, 2*

^{m}*)| = 2*

^{(m+t)/2}*≤* *√*

## 22

^{m(1−1/σ)}*.*

*Henceforth we shall assume that ν ≥ 2. In particular, by Lemma 2.2(i),* *it follows that σ ≥ 2. We start the induction proof with m = 3. In this case* *we have the trivial bound |S*

_{α}*(f, 2*

^{3}

*)| ≤ 4 ≤* *√*

## 22

^{3(1−1/σ)}## . Suppose now that

*m ≥ t+3 and that the inequality in (3.8) has been established for all smaller* *values of m. If m − σ ≤ τ + 2 then we have the trivial bound*

*|S*

_{α}*(f, 2*

^{m}*)| ≤ 2*

^{m−1}*≤* *√*

*2ν2*

^{m(1−1/σ)}*,* since

## 2

^{m−σ}*≤ 2*

^{τ +2}*≤ 4σ ≤ (2* *√*

## 2)

^{σ}*≤ (* *√* *2ν)*

^{σ}*.*

*Here, we have used the facts that σ ≥ 2 and 2*

^{τ}*≤ d*

_{p}*(g*

_{α}*) ≤ σ. If m−σ ≥ t+3* then we can apply the induction assumption as in Case (iv) above to obtain the result.

**4. Mixed exponential sums. We begin by stating the generalization** of Theorem 1.1 in [6] which was stated for the case of polynomials. Let *S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*), S*

_{α}*= S*

_{α}*(χ, f, p*

^{m}*), the values a, r, c = c(χ, a), and the set of* *critical points A be as defined in the introduction.*

*Theorem 4.1. Let p be an odd prime, f be any rational function over Z,* *χ be a multiplicative character (mod p*

^{m}*), α an integer with p - αf*

2*(α) and* *t, t*

_{1}

*be as defined in (1.9) and (1.16). Then if m ≥ t*

_{1}

*+ 2 we have:*

*(i) If α 6∈ A, then S*

*α*

*(χ, f, p*

^{m}*) = 0.*

*(ii) If α is a critical point of multiplicity ν ≥ 1 then t = t*

1 *and* *(4.1)* *|S*

*α*

*(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ νp*

^{t/(ν+1)}*p*

*m(1−1/(ν+1))*

*.*

*(iii) If α is a critical point of multiplicity one then* *S*

*α*

*(χ, f, p*

^{m}## ) =

## *χ(α*

^{∗}*)e*

*p*

^{m}*(f (α*

^{∗}*))p*

^{(m+t)/2}*if m − t is even,* *χ(α*

^{∗}*)e*

_{p}

^{m}*(f (α*

^{∗}*))χ*

_{2}

*(A*

_{α}*)G*

_{p}*p*

^{(m+t−1)/2}*if m − t is odd,* *where α*

^{∗}*is the unique lifting of α to a solution of the congruence*

*p*

^{−t}*(Rxf*

^{0}*(x) + c) ≡ 0 (mod p*

*[(m−t+1)/2]*

## ) *and*

*A*

*α*

*≡ 2αp*

^{−t}*(f*

^{0}*(α) + αf*

^{00}*(α)) (mod p).*

*In particular , we have equality in (4.1).*

*Here G*

_{p}## is the classical Gauss sum, *G*

_{p}## :=

*p−1*

## X

*x=0*

*e*

_{p}*(x*

^{2}

## ) =

*p−1*

## X

*x=1*

*χ*

_{2}

*(x)e*

_{p}*(x) =*

* √* *p* *if p ≡ 1 (mod 4),* *i* *√*

*p if p ≡ 3 (mod 4),* *χ*

_{2}

*is the quadratic character (mod p), and R is the p-adic integer* *(4.2)* *R := p*

^{−1}*log(1 + rp) = p*

^{−1}## X

*∞*

*i=1*

*(−1)*

^{i+1}*(rp)*

^{i}*i* *≡ r (mod p).*

## It follows immediately that under the hypotheses of the theorem *(4.3)* *|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤* X

*α∈A*

*ν*

_{α}*p*

^{t/(M +1)}*p*

*m(1−1/(M +1))*

*,*

*where M is the maximum multiplicity of the critical points. Also, if all of* the critical points are of multiplicity one then we obtain an explicit formula *for the sum S(χ, f, p*

^{m}## ).

*For the prime p = 2 the critical point congruence associated with the* *sum S(χ, f, 2*

^{m}## ) is just

## 2

^{−t}^{1}

*(xf*

^{0}*(x) + c) ≡ 0 (mod 2),*

*where c = c(χ) is defined by the relations χ(5) = e*

_{2}

^{m−2}*(c), 1 ≤ c ≤ 2*

^{m−2}## , *and t*

_{1}

## = ord

_{2}

*(Xf*

^{0}*(X) + c) (see [6], Section 8). The only allowable critical* *point is the residue class 1 and it is a critical point if and only if t = t*

1 ## and *f*

^{0}*(1) ≡ c (mod 2*

^{t+1}## ). We have

*Theorem 4.2. Suppose that f is a rational function over Z, χ is a mul-* *tiplicative character (mod 2*

^{m}*), and m ≥ t*

1*+ 3. Then*

*(i) If 1 is not a critical point then S(χ, f, 2*

^{m}*) = 0.*

*(ii) If 1 is a critical point of multiplicity ν ≥ 1 then t = t*

1 *and* *(4.4)* *|S(χ, f, 2*

^{m}*)| ≤ 2ν2*

^{t/(ν+1)}## 2

*m(1−1/(ν+1))*

*.*

## The proofs of Theorems 4.1 and 4.2 follow the same line of argument given in [6] for the case of polynomials. We shall include here a complete proof of Theorem 4.1 in order to highlight the modifications required for the case of rational functions, but for the sake of brevity we shall omit the proof of Theorem 4.2. It follows identically as the proof of Theorem 8.1 of [6], taking into account these modifications.

## In the course of the proof of Theorem 4.1 we need the fact that if the sum *S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*) has an associated critical point then t*

_{1}

*= t. This was a trivial* observation for the case of polynomials but appears to be a nontrivial fact *for rational functions. It is plain from the definition that t*

1*≥ t in this case.*

## Equality will follow from Lemma 4.1 below. We also use this lemma to prove *Corollary 4.1. Let f = f*

1*/f*

2 *be a rational function over Z with* *(f*

_{1}

*, f*

_{2}

*) = 1 and let D = max{d(f*

_{1}

*) + d(f*

_{2}

*), 2d(f*

_{2}

*)}. Then for any prime p* *with d*

_{p}*(f ) ≥ 1, any positive integer m ≥ 2 and any multiplicative character* *χ (mod p*

^{m}*) we have*

*(4.5)* *|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ 4Dp*

*m(1−1/(D+1))*

*.*

*P r o o f. Suppose first that p is odd and m < t*

1## + 2. Then, by Lemma 4.1 *below, m ≤ t + 1. Now, by Lemma 2.1(iii), p*

^{t}*≤ d*

^{∗}*(f ) ≤ D, and so we have* the trivial upper bound

*|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ p*

^{m}*≤ p*

^{t}*p ≤ Dp*

*m(1−1/(D+1))*

*.*

*Suppose now that m ≥ t*

1*+ 2. If A is empty then the upper bound is trivial.*

*Otherwise we must have t = t*

_{1}

*, as noted above, and m ≥ t + 2. Then it* follows from (4.3) and the facts that P

*α∈A*

*ν*

_{α}*≤ D and M ≤ D that*

*|S(χ, f, p*

^{m}*)| ≤ Dp*

^{t/(D+1)}*p*

*m(1−1/(D+1))*

*≤ D*

^{1/(D+1)}*Dp*

*m(1−1/(D+1))*

*,* which is sharper than (4.5).

*For p = 2 we see that trivially, if m ≤ t*

_{1}

*+ 2, the |S(χ, f, 2*

^{m}*)| ≤ 2*

^{m−1}*≤* 2

^{t+1}*≤ 2D. Otherwise, by (4.4) we obtain the upper bound in (4.5).*

*Lemma 4.1. Let p be a prime, f a rational function over Z with ord*

*p*

*(f )*

*≥ 0, c, r any integers with p - r and let t, t*

_{1}

*be defined by* *t = ord*

_{p}*(f*

^{0}*),* *t*

_{1}

## = ord

_{p}*(rXf*

^{0}*(X) + c).*

*Then t*

1*= min{t, ord*

*p*

*(c)}.*

## This lemma follows readily from

*Lemma 4.2. Let p be a prime and f be a rational function over Z with* ord

_{p}*(f ) ≥ 0. Then for any positive integer k, there exists a nonnegative* *integer l, rational numbers a*

*i*

*, i ≥ −l, and a rational function h over Z such* *that in the field of formal Laurent series over Q, we have*

*(4.6)* *f (X) =*

## X

*∞*

*i=−l*

*a*

_{i}*X*

^{i}*+ p*

^{k}*h(X),* *with ord*

_{p}*(a*

_{i}*) ≥ 0, for i ≥ −l, and ord*

_{p}*(h) ≥ 0.*

*P r o o f. The proof is by induction on k. Suppose first that k = 1. Write* *f = f*

_{1}

*/f*

_{2}

*with f*

_{1}

*, f*

_{2}

*∈ Z[X], (f*

_{1}

*, f*

_{2}

*) = 1 in Z[X], and ord*

_{p}*(f*

_{2}

## ) = 0.

*Suppose that when read (mod p), f*

_{2}

*has a zero at x = 0 of multiplicity* *l ≥ 0. Then we can write*

*f*

_{2}

*(X) = aX*

^{l}*g*

_{1}

*(X) + pg*

_{2}

*(X)*

*for some integer a with p - a, and polynomials g*

_{1}

*, g*

_{2}

*∈ Z[X], with g*

_{1}

## (0) = 1.

## Thus,

*(4.7)* *f (X) =* *f*

1*(X)*

*f*

_{2}

*(X)* = *f*

1*(X)*

*aX*

^{l}*g*

_{1}

*(X)* *+ ph(X)*

*for some rational function h(X) over Z with ord*

_{p}*(h) ≥ 0. Now, since g*

_{1}

## (0) = 1, *f*

1*/g*

1 *admits a power series expansion f*

1*/g*

1 ## = P

_{∞}*i=0*

*b*

*i*

*X*

^{i}## with integer co- *efficients b*

_{i}*, i ≥ 0. But then by (4.7) we obtain the result of the lemma.*

## The induction step now follows easily by applying the result of the lemma *in succession to the function h(X).*

*Proof of Lemma 4.1. It is sufficient to prove that for any nonnegative* *integer k,*

## ord

_{p}*(rXf*

^{0}